The clinical patterns and predictors of cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease in kidney and/or pancreas transplant patients on ganciclovir (1.0 g po t.i.d.) or valganciclovir (450 mg po q.d.) prophylaxis were studied. This is a retrospective analysis of 129 transplant recipients. Median follow up was 12 months (range, 6–18 months). The overall incidence of CMV disease at 1-year post-transplant was 14% (4% tissue-invasive, 10% noninvasive). Seventeen of 18 patients were diagnosed with CMV after completion of 3 months' prophylaxis (median 8 weeks, range, 2–28 weeks). Induction treatment with thymoglobulin, and Donor +/Recipient – CMV status were the strongest predictors for the development of CMV disease. Cytomegalovirus incidence was not different between patients treated with ganciclovir or valganciclovir (15 vs. 17%, respectively).
Valganciclovir (450 mg q.d.) is as effective as oral ganciclovir in CMV prophylaxis. High-risk individuals might require higher doses or longer duration of valganciclovir treatment.