• pediatrics;
  • post-transplant diabetes;
  • tacrolimus

A retrospective analysis of 381 pediatric heart-transplant recipients was performed to determine the frequency, characteristics, and risk factors for post-transplant diabetes. The rate of post-transplant diabetes was 1.8% with antithymocyte globulin, cyclosporine and azathioprine as primary immunosuppressive therapy. Time from transplant to diabetes was 0.25–13 years. Diabetes was characterized by reversibility, and lack of insulinopenia and autoimmunity. The post-transplant diabetes rate in tacrolimus-converted children (n = 45) was 8.8%. In tacrolimus-converted children, age at transplant, mean and maximum tacrolimus blood levels, and first-year rejection episodes were higher in the post-transplant diabetes group, which also consistently had DR-mismatched transplants and HLA DR3/DR4 haplotypes. Body mass index was not different between diabetic and control tacrolimus-converted children. In conclusion, pediatric post-transplant diabetes may be related to reversible insulin resistance. Tacrolimus levels, HLA DR mismatch, and older age at transplant may predispose to post-transplant diabetes.