Abstract – The aim of this study was to determine whether treatment with fish oil may alter the periapical bone resorption following pulp exposure in rats. Untreated and pulp-exposed animals served as the negative and positive control, respectively. Other pulp-exposed animals were orally treated with fish oil at different concentrations and frequencies. Periapical tissue sections were stained with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), and then the numbers of both periapical osteoclasts and preosteoclasts were determined. The levels of bone resorption were assessed using the osteoclast–bone interface (OBI) index. The results showed that no differences between the numbers of both osteoclasts and preosteoclasts in the fish oil-treated animals and the negative control at day 14 could be found. Similarly, the periapical bone resorption in the animals treated with fish oil for 14 days significantly reduced to the levels of that in the negative control. The results of the present study, therefore, suggest that oral treatment with fish oil may inhibit bone resorption following pulp exposure in rats and hence, may have a therapeutic modality for inflamed periradicular tissue.