Sjögren's syndrome is a chronic autoimmune and rheumatic disorder with prominent sicca complaints from the mucous membranes because of lack of proper exocrine secretions. There is no straightforward and simple diagnostic test for Sjögren's syndrome, although several classification criteria have been designed including several oral diagnostic tests. A new set of classification criteria in a joint effort by research groups in Europe and USA has recently been presented. A large number of autoantibodies have been reported in Sjögren's syndrome where, in some cases, the antibodies are correlated with the extent and severity of disease. The finding of serum autoantibodies directed against the muscarinic M3 receptor is an important advance in understanding the pathogenesis of not only the impaired glandular function but also associated features of autonomic dysfunction in some patients. The treatment of primary Sjögren's syndrome is still mainly symptomatic.