• 1
    Selye H. A syndrome produced by diverse nocuous agents. Nature 1936;138:3233.
  • 2
    Pacak K, Palkovits M, Yadid G, Kvetnansky R, Kopin IJ, Goldstein DS. Heterogeneous neurochemical responses to different stressors. a test of Selye's doctrine of non-specificity. Am J Physiol 1998;275:R1247R1255.
  • 3
    Sapolsky RM, Romero LM, Munck AU. How do glucocorticoids influence stress responses? Integrating permissive, suppressive, stimulatory, and preparative actions. Endocr Rev 2000;21:5589.
  • 4
    Dorian B, Garfinkel PE. Stress, immunity and illness − a review. Psychol Med 1987;17:393407.
  • 5
    Anisman H, Zalcman S, Zacharko RM. The impact of stressors on immune and central neurotransmitter activity: bidirectional communication. Rev Neurosci 1993;4:147180.
  • 6
    Yirmiya R. Behavioural and psychological effects of immune activation: implications for ‘depression due to a general medical condition’. Curr Trends Psychiatry 1997;10:470476.
  • 7
    Kronfol Z, Remick DG. Cytokines and the brain: implications for clinical psychiatry. Am J Psychiatry 2000;157:683694.
  • 8
    Licino J, Wong M-L. The role of inflammatory mediators in the biology of major depression: central nervous system cytokines modulate the biological substrate of depressive symptoms, regulate stress-responsive systems, and contribute to neurotoxicity and neuroprotection. Mol Psychiatry 1999;4:317327.
  • 9
    Rivest S, Lacroix S, Vallieres L, Nadeau S, Zhang J, Laflamme N. How the blood talks to the brain parenchyma and the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus during systemic inflammatory and infectious stimuli. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 2000;223:2238.
  • 10
    Van der Werf YD, De Jongste MJL, Ter Horst GJ. The immune system mediated blood brain barrier damage. possible implications for pathology of neuropsychiatric illnesses. Acta Neuropsychiatr 1995;7:114121.
  • 11
    Maes M, Song C, Lin A et al. The effects of psychological stress on humans: increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and a Th1-like response in stress-induced anxiety. Cytokine 1998;10:313318.
  • 12
    Maes M. Psychological stress, cytokines and the inflammatory response system. Curr Opin Psychiatry 1999;19:695700.
  • 13
    Dugue B, Leppanen EA, Teppo AM, Fyhrquist F, Grasbeck R. Effects of psychological stress on plasma interleukins-1β and 6, C-reactive protein, tumour necrosis factor α, antidiuretic hormone and serum cortisol. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1993;555561.
  • 14
    Maes M, Goossens F, Lin A, De Meester I, Van Gatel A, Scharpe S. Effects of psychological stress on serum prolyl endopeptidase and dipeptyl peptidase IV activity in humans: higher serum prolyl endopeptidase activity is related to stress-induced anxiety. Psychoendoneuroendocrinology 1998;23:485495.
  • 15
    Maes M. Evidence for an immune response in major depression. a review and hypothesis. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 1995;19:1138.
  • 16
    Maes M, Meltser HY, Scharpe S et al. Relationships between lower plasma l-tryptophan levels and immune-inflammatory variables in depression. Psychiatr Res 1993;49:151165.
  • 17
    Frommberger UH, Baurer J, Haselbauer P, Fraulin A, Riemann D, Berger M. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) plasma levels in depression and schizophrenia: comparison between the acute state and after remission. Eur Arch Psychiatr Clin Neurosci 1997;247:228233.
  • 18
    Seidel A, Arolt V, Hunstiger M, Rink L, Behnisch A, Kirchner H. Increased CD56+ natural killer cells and related cytokines in major depression. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 1996;78:8385.
  • 19
    Thomas AJ, Ferrier IN, Kalaria RN et al. Elevation in late life depression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Am J Psychiatry 2000;157:16821684.
  • 20
    Zorilla EP, McKay JR, Luborsky L, Schmidt K. Relation of stressors and depressive symptoms to clinical progression of viral illness. Am J Psychiatry 1996;153:626635.
  • 21
    Fisher CM. Hypomanic symptoms caused by herpes simplex encephalitis. Neurology 1997;47:13741378.
  • 22
    Caparros-Lefebvre D, Girard-Buttaz I, Reboul S et al. Cognitive and psychiatric impairment in herpes simplex virus encephalitis suggest involvement of amygdalo-frontal pathways. J Neurol 1996;243:248256.
  • 23
    Sheline YI, Wang PW, Gado MH, Csernansky JG. Hippocampus atrophy in recurrent depression. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1996;93:39083913.
  • 24
    Sapolsky RM. Glucocorticoids and hippocampal atrophy in neuropsychiatric disorders. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2000;57:925935.
  • 25
    Corey L, Spear RG. Infections with herpes simplex viruses. N Engl J Med 1981;314:749757.
  • 26
    Ferzst R, Severus E, Bode L, Brehm M, Kuhl KP, Ludwig H. Activated Borna disease virus in affective disorders. Pharmacopsychiatry 1999;32:9396.
  • 27
    Dietrich DE, Bode L, Spannhuth CW et al. Amantadine in depressive patients with Borna disease virus (BDV) infection: an open trial. Bipolar Dis 2000;2:6570.
  • 28
    Amsterdam JDD, Maislin G, Potter L, Giuntoli R. Reduced rate of recurrent genital herpes infections with Lithium carbonate. Psychopharmacol Bull 1990;26:343347.
  • 29
    Amsterdam JD, Maislin G, Rybakowski J. A possible anti-viral action of lithium carbonate in herpes simplex virus infections. Biol Psychiatry 1990;27:447453.
  • 30
    Meijer A, Zakay-Rones Z, Morag A. Post-influenzal psychiatric disorder in adolescents. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1988;78:176181.
  • 31
    Maj M. Depressive syndromes and symptoms in subjects with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Br J Psychiatry 1996;168:117122.
  • 32
    Holden RJ, Pakula IS, Mooney PA. An immunological model connecting the pathogenesis of stress, depression and carcinoma. Med Hypoth 1998;51:309314.
  • 33
    MacKenzie CR, Gonzalez RG, Kniep E, Och S, Daubener W. Cytokine mediated regulation of interferon-gamma-induced IDO activation. Adv Exp Med 1999;567:533539.
  • 34
    Appels A, Baer FW, Baer J, Bruggeman C, De Beats M. Inflammation, depressive symptomatology, and corony artery disease. Psychosom Med 2000;62:601605.
  • 35
    Berger AK, Fratiglioni L, Forsell Y, Windblad B, Backman L. The occurrence of depressive symptoms in the preclinical phase of AD. Neurology 1999;53:19982002.
  • 36
    McGeer PL, McGeer EG. Inflammation of the brain in Alzheimer's disease: implications for therapy. J Neurosci News 1998;1:2935.
  • 37
    Weissman MM, Klerman GL. Gender and depression. Trends Neurosci 1985;8:416420.
  • 38
    Generini MM, Cutolo M, Kottinen Y, et al. Neuropeptides and steroid hormones in arthritis. Curr Opin Rheumatol 1988;10:220235.
  • 39
    Kessler RC, McGonagle KA, Schwartz M, Blazer D G, Nelson CB. Sex and depression in the national comorbidity survey. I. Lifetime prevalence, chronicity and recurrence. J Affect Disord 1993;29:8596.
  • 40
    Fassbinder K, Schmidt R, Moβner et al. Mood disorders and dysfunction of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis in multiple sclerosis. Association with cerebral inflammation. Arch Neurol 1998;55:6672.
  • 41
    Sadovnick AD, Remick RA, Allen J et al. Depression and multiple sclerosis. Neurology 1996;46:628632.
  • 42
    Hatzinger M. Neuropeptides and the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA) system: review of recent research strategies in depression. World J Biol Psychiatry 2000;1:105111.
  • 43
    Dieperink E, Willenbring M, Ho SB. Neuropsychiatric symptoms associated with hepatitis C and interferon alpha: a review. Am J Psychiatry 2000;157:867876.
  • 44
    Van Gool AR, Kruit WHJ, Cornelissen JJ, Berk L, Eggermont AMM, Bannink M. Management of psychiatric adverse events with immunotherapy with interferon-alfa. Acta Neuropsychiatry 1999;11:120124.
  • 45
    Dunn AJ, Wang J, Ando T. Effects of cytokines on cerebral neurotransmission: comparison with the effects of stress. Adv Exp Med 1999;461:117127.
  • 46
    Alberati-Giani D, Cesura AM. Expression of the kynurenine enzymes in macrophages and microglia cells: regulation by immune modulators. Amino-Acids 1998;14:251255.
  • 47
    Moreno FA, Gelenberg AJ, Heninger GR et al. Tryptophan depletion and depressive vulnerability. Biol Psychiatry 1999;46:498505.
  • 48
    Rogers J, Kirby LC, Hempelman SR et al. Clinical trial of indomethacin in Alzheimer's disease. Neurology 1993;43:16091611.
  • 49
    Wyss-Coray T, Mucke L. Ibuprofen, inflammation and Alzheimer's disease. Nature Med 2000;6:973974.
  • 50
    Weidenfeld J, Yirmiya R. Effects of bacterial endotoxine on the glucocorticoid feedback regulation of adrenocortical response to stress. Neuroimmunomodulation 1966;3:352357.
  • 51
    Ribeiro SCM, Tandon R, Grunhaus L, Greden JF. The DST as a predictor of outcome in depression: a meta-analysis. Am J Psychiatry 1993;150:16181629.
  • 52
    Thase ME, Dube S, Bowler K et al. Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical activity and response to cognitive behaviour therapy in unmedicated hospitalized depressed patients. Am J Psychiatrry 1996;153:886891 .
  • 53
    Debattista CC, Posener JA, Kalehzan BM, Schatzberg AF. Acute antidepressant effects of intravenous hydrocortisone and CRH in depressed patients: a double-blind. placebo-controlled study. Am J Psychiatry 2000;157:13341337.
  • 54
    Tops M, Van Der Pompe G, Baas D et al. Acute cortisol effects on immediate free recall and recognition of nouns in young volunteers depend on affective content of the stimuli. Psychophysiology 2000.
  • 55
    Lupien SJ, McEwen BS. The acute effects of corticosteroids on cognition: integration of animal and human studies. Brain Res Rev 1997;24:124.
  • 56
    Heim C, Ehlert U, Hellhammer DH. The potential role of hypocorticolism in the pathophysiology of stress related bodily disorders. Psychoendocrinology 2000;25:113.
  • 57
    Rothwell NJ, Hopkins SJ. Cytokines and the nervous system. Trends Neurosci 1995;18:130136.
  • 58
    Patterson PH, Nawa H. Neuronal differentiation factors/cytokines and synaptic plasticity. Cell 1993;10:123137.
  • 59
    Yirmiya R. Endotoxin produces a depressive-like episode in rats. Brain Res 1996;711:163174.
  • 60
    Song C. The interaction between cytokines and neurotransmitters in depression and stress: possible mechanism of antidepressant treatments. Human Psychopharm Clin Exp 2000;15:199211.
  • 61
    Versijpt J, Decco D, Dumont F et al. SPECT − imaging of inflammation in senile dementia of the Alzheimer type: a pilot study[Abstract]. Neurobiol Aging 2000;21 (Suppl. 252):1151.
  • 62
    Banati RB, Myers R, Goerres G, Kreutzberg GW, Brooks DJ. [11C]PK11195 PET-imaging of microglial activation in multiple sclerosis[Abstract]. Neurology 1997;48:A313.
  • 63
    Graham YP, Heim C, Goodman SH, Miller AH, Nemeroff CB. The effects of neonatal stress on brain development: implications for psychopathology. Dev Psychopathol 1999;11:545565.
  • 64
    Heim C, Nemeroff CB. The impact of early adverse experiences on brain systems involved in the pathophysiology of anxiety and affective disorders. Biol Psychiatry 1999;46:15091522.
  • 65
    Lopez JF, Akil H, Watson J. Role of biological and psychological factors in early development and their impact on adult life: neural circuits mediating stress. Biol Psychiatry 1999;46:14611471.
  • 66
    Modell S, Lauer CJ, Schreiber W, Huber ZJ, Krieg J-C, Holsboer F. Hormonal response pattern in the combined Dex-CRH test is stable over time in subjects at high familial risk for affective disorders. Neuropsychoparmacology 1998;18:253262.
  • 67
    Holsboer F, Lauer CJ, Schreiber W, Krieg J-C. Altered hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical regulation in healthy subjects at high familial risk for affective disorders. Neuroendocrinology 1995;65:340347.
  • 68
    Francis D, Diorio J, Liu D, Meanay MJ. Nongenomic transmission across generations of maternal behaviour and stress response in the rat. Science 1999;286:11551158.DOI: 10.1126/science.286.5442.1155
  • 69
    Francis DD, Meaney MJ. Maternal care and the development of stress response. Curr Opin Neurobiol 1999;9:128134.
  • 70
    Liu D, Diorio J, Day JC, Francis DD, Meaney MJ. Maternal care, hippocampus and cognitive development in rats. Nature Neurosci 2000;3:799806.
  • 71
    Shanks N, Taroque S, Meaney MJ. Neonatal endotoxin exposure alters the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis: early illness and later responsivity to stress. J Neurosci 1995;15:376384.
  • 72
    Ruda MA, Ling Q-D, Hohmann AG, Peng YB, Tachibana T. Altered nociceptive neuronal circuits after neonatal peripheral inflammation. Science 2000;289:628630.
  • 73
    Fox DA. Cytokine blockade as a new strategy to treat rheumatoid arthritis: inhibition of tumour necrosis factor. Arch Intern Med 2000;160:437444.
  • 74
    Infante R, Lahita RG. Rheumatoid arthritis. New disease-modifying and anti-inflammatory drugs. Geriatrics 2000;55:3040.