The march of the PINs: developmental plasticity by dynamic polar targeting in plant cells

Authors

  • Wim Grunewald,

    1. Department of Plant Systems Biology, VIB, Technologiepark, Gent, Belgium
    2. Department of Plant Biotechnology and Genetics, Ghent University, Gent, Belgium
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  • Jiří Friml

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Plant Systems Biology, VIB, Technologiepark, Gent, Belgium
    2. Department of Plant Biotechnology and Genetics, Ghent University, Gent, Belgium
    • Corresponding author. Department of Plant Systems Biology, VIB, Ghent University, Technologiepark 927, Gent 9052, Belgium. Tel.: +329 331 3913; Fax: +329 331 3809; E-mail: jifri@psb.vib-ugent.be

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Abstract

Development of plants and their adaptive capacity towards ever-changing environmental conditions largely depend on the spatial distribution of the plant hormone auxin. At the cellular level, various internal and external signals are translated into specific changes in the polar, subcellular localization of auxin transporters from the PIN family thereby directing and redirecting the intercellular fluxes of auxin. The current model of polar targeting of PIN proteins towards different plasma membrane domains encompasses apolar secretion of newly synthesized PINs followed by endocytosis and recycling back to the plasma membrane in a polarized manner. In this review, we follow the subcellular march of the PINs and highlight the cellular and molecular mechanisms behind polar foraging and subcellular trafficking pathways. Also, the entry points for different signals and regulations including by auxin itself will be discussed within the context of morphological and developmental consequences of polar targeting and subcellular trafficking.

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