MicroRNAs are key regulators of transcriptome plasticity and have been implicated with the pathogenesis of brain diseases. Here, we employed massive parallel sequencing and provide, at an unprecedented depth, the complete and quantitative miRNAome of the mouse hippocampus, the prime target of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using integrative genetics, we identify miR-34c as a negative constraint of memory consolidation and show that miR-34c levels are elevated in the hippocampus of AD patients and corresponding mouse models. In line with this, targeting miR-34 seed rescues learning ability in these mouse models. Our data suggest that miR-34c could be a marker for the onset of cognitive disturbances linked to AD and indicate that targeting miR-34c could be a suitable therapy.