• endocytosis;
  • HSV1;
  • Rab11;
  • Rab5;
  • trans-Golgi network

Enveloped viruses employ diverse and complex strategies for wrapping at cellular membranes, many of which are poorly understood. Here, an ultrastructural study of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1)-infected cells revealed envelopment in tubular membranes. These tubules were labelled by the fluid phase marker horseradish peroxidase (HRP), and were observed to wrap capsids as early as 2 min after HRP addition, indicating that the envelope had recently cycled from the cell surface. Consistent with this, capsids did not colocalise with either the trans-Golgi network marker TGN46 or late endosomal markers, but showed coincidence with the transferrin receptor. Virus glycoproteins were retrieved from the plasma membrane (PM) to label wrapping capsids, a process that was dependent on both dynamin and Rab5. Combined depletion of Rab5 and Rab11 reduced virus yield to <1%, resulting in aberrant localisation of capsids. These results suggest that endocytosis from the PM into endocytic tubules provides the main source of membrane for HSV1, and reveal a new mechanism for virus exploitation of the endocytic pathway.