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Immune Mechanisms Against Extracellular Pathogens

  1. Ingo B Autenrieth,
  2. Joachim Hein,
  3. Ralf Schulte

Published Online: 19 APR 2001

DOI: 10.1038/npg.els.0000479



How to Cite

Autenrieth, I. B., Hein, J. and Schulte, R. 2001. Immune Mechanisms Against Extracellular Pathogens. eLS. .

Author Information

  1. Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich, Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 19 APR 2001


Extracellular pathogens replicate and/or persist on mucosal surfaces or in host tissues outside host cells and may rapidly spread or establish an infection. In this habitat, however, they have to fight against several humoral (e.g. defensins, lactoferrin, antibodies) and cellular (phagocytes, T cells) immune defence mechanisms.


  • extracellular;
  • pathogen;
  • immunity;
  • humoral;
  • cellular