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Vaccines: Whole Organism

  1. Gordon Dougan

Published Online: 19 APR 2001

DOI: 10.1038/npg.els.0000491



How to Cite

Dougan, G. 2001. Vaccines: Whole Organism. eLS. .

Author Information

  1. Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London, UK

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 19 APR 2001


Vaccines are designed to protect people or animals against the clinical symptoms associated with infection by particular pathogenic agents. They are composed of antigens, derived from pathogens, that can be presented to the immune system in order to induce a protective immune response.


  • Immune response;
  • protective antigens;
  • reactogenicity;
  • endotoxins;
  • vaccinology;
  • whooping cough