Standard Article


  1. Ilkka M Helander1,
  2. Uwe Mamat2,
  3. Ernst Th. Rietschel2

Published Online: 25 APR 2001

DOI: 10.1038/npg.els.0000703



How to Cite

Helander, I. M., Mamat, U. and Rietschel, E. T. 2001. Lipopolysaccharides. eLS. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    VTT Biotechnology and Food Research, Finland

  2. 2

    Center for Medicine and Biosciences, Borstel, Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 25 APR 2001


Lipopolysaccharides are structural components of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. They are important antigens and exhibit versatile biological (endotoxic) activities through stimulation of mammalian cells to produce active mediators.


  • lipopolysaccharide;
  • Gram-negative bacteria;
  • lipid A;
  • endotoxin