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Genetic Code: Introduction

  1. Kimitsuna Watanabe

Published Online: 24 OCT 2002

DOI: 10.1038/npg.els.0000809

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How to Cite

Watanabe, K. 2002. Genetic Code: Introduction. eLS. .

Author Information

  1. University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 24 OCT 2002

This is not the most recent version of the article. View current version (17 OCT 2011)

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Figure 1. Gene map of frameshift mutants of T4 phage rIIB cistron caused by proflavin. Modified from Crick FHC, Barnett L, Brenner S and Watts-Tobin RJ (1961) Nature 192: 1227–1232.

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Figure 2. Frameshift mutants of T4 phage rIIB cistron caused by proflavin. Addition and deletion on the nucleotide sequence. Redrawn from Crick FHC, Barnett L, Brenner S and Watts-Tobin RJ (1961) Nature 192: 1227–1232.

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Figure 3. Replacement of the amber codon with amino acids in the head protein of T4 phage amber mutant grown in various Escherichia coli Su+ strains.

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Figure 4. Nucleotide sequences of the translation initiation sites in the coat protein, replicase and A protein of R17 RNA. The underlined sequences are the Shine–Dalgarno sequences. Redrawn from Steitz (1969) Nature 224: 957–964.

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Figure 5. Comparison between amino acid sequences of lysozyme of wild-type T4 phage and eJ42eJ44 frameshift mutant. Determination of in vivo code. Redrawn from Terzaghi E, Okada Y, Streisinger G et al. (1996) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 56: 500–507.

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Figure 6. The universal genetic code. At the time of the Cold Spring Harbor Symposium (1966) the UGA opal codon was not identified and all the codons were not completely allocated. The initiation codon was uncertain.