Standard Article


  1. Robert S Oldham

Published Online: 30 MAY 2001

DOI: 10.1038/npg.els.0001536



How to Cite

Oldham, R. S. 2001. Amphibia. eLS. .

Author Information

  1. De Montfort University, Leicester, UK

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 30 MAY 2001


The Amphibia includes the well-known frogs, toads, salamanders and newts. They are ectothermic, quadrupedal vertebrates with a glandular skin, and a life cycle, in modern species, characterized by the metamorphosis of an aquatic larva into a terrestrial adult. They evolved from lobe-finned fish in the Devonian and early amphibians are the ancestors of the amniotes.


  • amphibians;
  • frogs;
  • toads;
  • salamanders;
  • newts