Standard Article

Selection: Units and Levels

  1. Benard J Crespi

Published Online: 19 APR 2001

DOI: 10.1038/npg.els.0001712



How to Cite

Crespi, B. J. 2001. Selection: Units and Levels. eLS. .

Author Information

  1. Simon Fraser University, Barnaby, BC, Canada

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 19 APR 2001


Analysis of units and levels of selection allows determination of where and how natural selection takes place, and how it causes evolutionary change in genes and organisms.


  • selection;
  • altruism;
  • genes;
  • evolution