Ingestion in Birds
Published Online: 30 MAY 2001
Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. All rights reserved.
How to Cite
Zweers, G. and Berkhoudt, H. 2001. Ingestion in Birds. eLS. .
- Published Online: 30 MAY 2001
Ingestion of food and water in birds is mediated by an extremely diverse trophic system which traces back upon only two modifications of one single anatomical design, i.e. a kinetic, beaked skull. The mechanics of ingestion are characterized by lower jaw depression linked to a movable upper jaw which is highly integrated with tongue and larynx motion – though often compromised by functional demands from drinking and vocalization – controlled primarily by touch and taste.
- cranial kinesis;
- pecking pattern;
- trophic evolution