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Ingestion in Birds

  1. Gart Zweers,
  2. Herman Berkhoudt

Published Online: 30 MAY 2001

DOI: 10.1038/npg.els.0001836

eLS

eLS

How to Cite

Zweers, G. and Berkhoudt, H. 2001. Ingestion in Birds. eLS. .

Author Information

  1. Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 30 MAY 2001

Abstract

Ingestion of food and water in birds is mediated by an extremely diverse trophic system which traces back upon only two modifications of one single anatomical design, i.e. a kinetic, beaked skull. The mechanics of ingestion are characterized by lower jaw depression linked to a movable upper jaw which is highly integrated with tongue and larynx motion – though often compromised by functional demands from drinking and vocalization – controlled primarily by touch and taste.

Keywords:

  • cranial kinesis;
  • pecking pattern;
  • trophic evolution