Standard Article

Osmoregulation by Vertebrates in Aquatic Environments

  1. David H Evans

Published Online: 26 MAR 2003

DOI: 10.1038/npg.els.0001842

eLS

eLS

How to Cite

Evans, D. H. 2003. Osmoregulation by Vertebrates in Aquatic Environments. eLS. .

Author Information

  1. University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 26 MAR 2003

Abstract

Because the salt concentration of the body fluids of aquatic vertebrates differs from that of their freshwater or marine environment, they face net movements of water and salt across their permeable membranes, most notably the gill. Various organs and transport processes are involved in maintaining internal consistency in the face of these potential osmotic and salt problems.

Keywords:

  • osmoregulation;
  • vertebrates;
  • fishes;
  • amphibians;
  • reptiles;
  • birds;
  • mammals