Standard Article

Large Fermenters

  1. Michael A Winkler

Published Online: 19 APR 2001

DOI: 10.1038/npg.els.0002970



How to Cite

Winkler, M. A. 2001. Large Fermenters. eLS. .

Author Information

  1. University of Surrey, Guildford, UK

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 19 APR 2001


A fermenter is a container in which a biological process can be carried out. Organisms, substrates and nutrients are brought together in the fermenter and maintained there in a favourable environment.


  • bubble columns;
  • heat generation;
  • microcarrier;
  • oxygen dissolution;
  • suspended growth