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History of Immunology

  1. Arthur M Silverstein

Published Online: 25 APR 2001

DOI: 10.1038/npg.els.0003078



How to Cite

Silverstein, A. M. 2001. History of Immunology. eLS. .

Author Information

  1. Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 25 APR 2001


Immunity to disease has long been recognized, but only during the late nineteenth century, thanks to Louis Pasteur, Robert Koch, Elie Metchnikoff and Paul Ehrlich, did immunology become a true science able to explain mechanisms and to develop preventive vaccines. Originally medically oriented (1880–1910), the field passed through a stage of chemical domination (1910–1960) and then became biologically and, once again, medically oriented.


  • immunology;
  • allergy;
  • vaccination;
  • antibodies