Standard Article

Lake Ecosystems

  1. Nelson G Hairston Jr,
  2. Gregor F Fussmann

Published Online: 22 MAR 2002

DOI: 10.1038/npg.els.0003191



How to Cite

Hairston, N. G. and Fussmann, G. F. 2002. Lake Ecosystems. eLS. .

Author Information

  1. Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 22 MAR 2002

This is not the most recent version of the article. View current version (15 MAY 2014)


Lakes are discrete, largely isolated ecosystems in which the interplay between physical, biogeochemical and organismal processes can be studied, understood, and put to use in effective management.


  • lake;
  • ecosystem