Standard Article

Migration: Orientation and Navigation

  1. Franz Bairlein

Published Online: 25 APR 2001

DOI: 10.1038/npg.els.0003209



How to Cite

Bairlein, F. 2001. Migration: Orientation and Navigation. eLS. .

Author Information

  1. Institute of Avian Research, Wilhelmshaven, Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 25 APR 2001


Directional or compass orientation does not require a geographically fixed reference whereas goal orientation or true navigation relies on knowledge of the previously experienced goal and the determination of the exact position relative to the goal.


  • compass direction;
  • navigation;
  • homing;
  • biological compasses