Standard Article

Agricultural Systems: Ecology

  1. Clive A Edwards

Published Online: 25 APR 2001

DOI: 10.1038/npg.els.0003250



How to Cite

Edwards, C. A. 2001. Agricultural Systems: Ecology. eLS. .

Author Information

  1. Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 25 APR 2001


Agricultural systems have four main inputs, cultivations, nutrients, crops and pest management, all of which are interlinked and influenced by each other. They are affected by land and water and energy availability and soil erosion. To achieve long-term agricultural sustainability, the need for fossil-fuel-based inputs should be minimized and the biological and ecological inputs maximized.


  • agricultural systems;
  • agro-ecology;
  • sustainability resources;
  • energy use