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Reproduction and Life Cycles in Invertebrates

  1. Peter JW Olive

Published Online: 15 APR 2002

DOI: 10.1038/npg.els.0003649



How to Cite

Olive, P. J. 2002. Reproduction and Life Cycles in Invertebrates. eLS. .

Author Information

  1. University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 APR 2002


The patterns of reproduction among the invertebrates are much more varied than those of vertebrates. Male and female functions can occur in the same individual either sequentially or at the same time. Various patterns of asexual reproduction may be observed, although these are almost always combined with sexual reproduction at some stage in the life cycle.


  • sexual reproduction;
  • asexual reproduction;
  • parthenogenesis;
  • hermaphrodite;
  • larva