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Ligation: Theory and Practice

  1. Karthikeyan Kandavelou1,
  2. Mala Mani1,
  3. Sekhar PM Reddy2,
  4. Srinivasan Chandrasegaran2

Published Online: 23 SEP 2005

DOI: 10.1038/npg.els.0003838



How to Cite

Kandavelou, K., Mani, M., Reddy, S. P. and Chandrasegaran, S. 2005. Ligation: Theory and Practice. eLS. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    Johns Hopkins University, Maryland, USA

  2. 2

    Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 23 SEP 2005


Ligation is the process by which NAD DNA ligases catalyse the formation of phosphodiester bonds between juxtaposed 3′-hydroxyl group and 5′-phosphate termini in duplex deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Ligases use adenosine triphosphate or nicotinamide–adenine dinucleotide (NAD) as cofactors for this covalent joining of DNA.


  • DNA ligases;
  • recombinant DNA;
  • ligase chain reaction;
  • mammalian ligases