Standard Article

Mutagenesis: Site-specific

  1. M Raafat El-Gewely,
  2. Chris Fenton,
  3. Elisabeth Kjeldsen,
  4. Hao Xu

Published Online: 23 SEP 2005

DOI: 10.1038/npg.els.0003842



How to Cite

El-Gewely, M. R., Fenton, C., Kjeldsen, E. and Xu, H. 2005. Mutagenesis: Site-specific. eLS. .

Author Information

  1. University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 23 SEP 2005

This is not the most recent version of the article. View current version (16 JUN 2014)


Site-specific mutagenesis techniques are aimed at the precise substitution, insertion or deletion of any coding sequence in vitro. More recently, however, such precise alterations are also being developed for in vivo gene/genome modifications. These techniques are revolutionizing our understanding of the genetic and molecular mechanisms in several biological systems, which could lead to the development of new enzymes, therapeutics as well as improved agricultural applications.


  • codon optimization;
  • mutation efficiency;
  • N-end rule;
  • synthetic mutations