Standard Article

Transfer RNA Synthetase Editing of Amino Acids

  1. Hieronim Jakubowski

Published Online: 3 MAY 2005

DOI: 10.1038/npg.els.0003933



How to Cite

Jakubowski, H. 2005. Transfer RNA Synthetase Editing of Amino Acids. eLS. .

Author Information

  1. UMDNJ-New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 3 MAY 2005

This is not the most recent version of the article. View current version (16 MAR 2015)


Intrinsic binding energies of amino acids to aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are often inadequate to give the required accuracy of translation. This has necessitated the evolution of a second determinant of specificity, proofreading or editing mechanisms that remove errors in amino acid selection and prevent access of nonprotein amino acids to the genetic code. Editing of homocysteine and ornithine is linked to human disease.


  • genetic code;
  • protein biosynthesis;
  • protein engineering;
  • amino acid editing;
  • non-protein amino acids;
  • homocysteine-thiolactone;
  • homoserine-lactone;
  • ornithine-lactam;
  • aminoacyl-coenzyme A thioesters