Standard Article


  1. Michael Bulger1,
  2. Mark Groudine2

Published Online: 23 SEP 2005

DOI: 10.1038/npg.els.0005029



How to Cite

Bulger, M. and Groudine, M. 2005. Enhancers. eLS. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, USA

  2. 2

    Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 23 SEP 2005


Enhancers are deoxyribonucleic acid sequence elements that are capable of activating transcription from linked promoters independent of their orientation or position with respect to the promoter. They are the primary elements responsible for tissue-specific gene expression in multicellular eukaryotes, and appear to work largely by counteracting repression by chromatin.


  • transcription;
  • chromatin;
  • gene regulation;
  • nuclear organization;
  • promoters