Standard Article

Helsinki Declaration

  1. Richard H Nicholson

Published Online: 15 JUL 2006

DOI: 10.1038/npg.els.0005178



How to Cite

Nicholson, R. H. 2006. Helsinki Declaration. eLS. .

Author Information

  1. Bioethics Publications Limited, London, UK

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JUL 2006


The Helsinki Declaration is the most widely accepted set of ethical principles for the protection of the human subjects of medical research. Subsequent revisions have made it clear that the interests of the subject must always take precedence over the interests of science and society, but this has met considerable resistance from those involved in drug trials for licensing purposes.


  • research;
  • regulation;
  • ethics;
  • human subjects protection