Figure 3. Typical pedigrees showing autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive inheritance. Affected and unaffected individuals are denoted by filled and open symbols (square, male; circle, female) respectively. (a) Autosomal dominant inheritance of mutant allele B. Transmission of the phenotype occurs vertically between generations. On average, 50% of the offspring of an affected individual are themselves affected, irrespective of sex. (b) Autosomal recessive inheritance of mutant allele B. Consanguinity is frequent, as shown here (closely spaced parallel lines). Usually only a single sibship is affected, with previous and succeeding generations free of the disease. (c) If there is extensive inbreeding or the recessive mutant allele B is very common, pseudodominant inheritance may occur.