• 1
    Hayano, J., Sakakibara, Y., Yamada, A., et al (1991) Accuracy of assessment of cardiac vagal tone by heart rate variability in normal subjects. Am J Cardiol 67: 199204.
  • 2
    Kleiger R., Miller J., Bigger J. T., Moss A., and The Multicenter Post-Infarction Research Group. (1987) Decreased heart rate variability and its association with increased mortality after myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol 59: 25662.
  • 3
    Hull, S., Vanoli, E., Adamson, P. B., Verrier, R., Foreman, R., Schwartz, P. (1994) Exercise training confers anticipatory protection from sudden death during acute myocardial ischemia. Circulation 89: 548552.
  • 4
    Zahorska-Markiewicz, B., Kuagowska, E., Kucio, C., Klin, M. (1993) Heart rate variability in obesity. Int J Obes 17: 2123.
  • 5
    Davy, K., DeSouza, C., Jones, P., Seals, D. (1998) Elevated heart rate variability in physically active young and older adult women. Clin Sci 94: 579584.
  • 6
    de Meersman, R. (1993) Heart rate variability and aerobic fitness. Am Heart J 125: 726731.
  • 7
    Goldsmith, R., Bigger, J. T., Steinman, R., Fleiss, J. (1992) Comparison of 24-hour parasympathetic activity in endurance-trained and untrained young men. J Am Coll Cardiol 20: 552558.
  • 8
    Goldsmith, R., Bigger, J., Bloomfield, D., Steinman, R. (1997) Physical fitness as a determinant of vagal modulation. Med Sci Sports Exerc 29: 812817.
  • 9
    Shin, K., Minamitani, H., Onishi, S., Yamazaki, H., Lee, M. (1997) Autonomic differences between athletes and non-athletes: spectral analysis approach. Med Sci Sports Exerc 29: 14821490.
  • 10
    Boutcher, S., Cotton, Y., Nurhayati, C., Craig, G., Mclaren, P. (1997) Autonomic nervous function at rest in aerobically trained and untrained older men. Clin Physiol 17: 339346.
  • 11
    de Meersman, R. (1992) Respiratory sinus arrhythmia alteration following training in endurance athletes. Eur J Appl Physiol 64: 434436.
  • 12
    Shi, X., Stevens, G., Foresman, B., Stern, S., Raven, P. (1995) Autonomic nervous system control of the heart: endurance exercise training. Med Sci Sports Exerc 27: 14061413.
  • 13
    Kilavouri, K., Toivonen, L., Naveri, T., Leinonen, H. (1995) Reversal of autonomic derangements by physical training in chronic heart failure assessed by heart rate variability. Eur Heart J 16: 490495.
  • 14
    Seals, D., Chase, P. (1989) Influence of physical training on heart rate variability and baroreflex circulatory control. J Appl Physiol 66: 18861895.
  • 15
    Levy, W., Cerqueira, M., Harp, G., et al (1998) Effect of endurance exercise training on heart rate variability at rest in healthy young and older men. Am J Cardiol 82: 12361241.
  • 16
    Gutin, B., Owens, S., Slavens, G., Riggs, S., Treiber, F. (1997) Effect of physical training on heart period variability in obese children. J Pediatr 130: 938943.
  • 17
    Must, A., Dallal, G., Dietz, W. (1991) Reference data for obesity: 85th and 95th percentiles of body mass index (wt/ht2) and triceps skinfold thickness. Am J Clin Nutr 53: 839846.
  • 18
    Troiano, R., Flegal, K. (1998) Overweight children and adolescents: description, epidemiology, and demographics. Pediatrics 101: 497504.
  • 19
    Berntson, G., Bigger, J. T., Eckberg, D., et al (1997) Heart rate variability: origins, methods, and interpretive caveats. Psychophysiology 34: 623648.
  • 20
    Gutin, B., Cucuzzo, N., Islam, S., Smith, C., Moffatt, R., Pargman, D. (1995) Physical training improves body composition of black obese 7–11 year old girls. Obes Res 3: 305312.
  • 21
    Gutin, B., Litaker, M., Islam, S., Manos, T., Smith, C., Treiber, F. (1996) Body composition measurement in 9–11-y-old children by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, skinfold-thickness measurements, and bioimpedance analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 63: 287292.
  • 22
    Owens, S., Gutin, B., Allison, J., et al (1999) Effect of physical training on total and visceral fat in obese children. Med Sci Sports Exerc 31: 143148.
  • 23
    Sallis, J., Buono, M., Roby, J., Micale, F., Nelson, J. (1993) Seven-day recall and other physical activity self-reports in children and adolescents. Med Sci Sports Exerc 25: 99108.
  • 24
    Gutin, B., Riggs, S., Ferguson, M., Owens, S. (1999) Description and process evaluation of a physical training program for obese children. Res Q Exerc Sport 70: 6569.
  • 25
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (1996) Physical Activity and Health: A Report of the Surgeon General Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Atlanta.
  • 26
    Gutin, B., Owens, S., Okuyama, T., Riggs, S., Ferguson, M., Litaker, M. (1999) Effect of physical training and its cessation upon percent fat and bone density of obese children. Obes Res 7: 208214.
  • 27
    Maciel, B., Gallo, L., Neto, J., Filho, E., Filho, J., Manço, J. (1985) Parasympathetic contribution to bradycardia induced by endurance training in man. Cardiovasc Res 19: 642648.
  • 28
    DeGeus, E., van Doornen, L., DeVisser, D., Orlebeke, J. (1990) Existing and training induced differences in aerobic fitness: their relationship to physiological response patterns during different types of stress. Psychophysiology 27: 457478.
  • 29
    Boutcher, S., Stein, P. (1995) Association between heart rate variability and training response in sedentary middle-aged men. Eur J Appl Physiol 70: 7580.
  • 30
    Davy, K., Willis, W., Seals, D. (1997) Influence of exercise training on heart-rate-variability in postmenopausal women with elevated arterial blood-pressure. Clin Physiol 17: 3140.
  • 31
    Owens, S., Gutin, B., Ferguson, M., Allison, J., Karp, W., Le, N-A. (1998) Visceral adipose tissue and cardiovascular risk factors in obese children. J Pediatr. 133: 415.
  • 32
    Urbina, E., Bao, W., Pickoff, A., Berenson, G. (1988) Ethnic (black-white) contrasts in heart rate variability during cardiovascular reactivity testing in male adolescents with high and low blood pressure. Am J Hypertens 11: 196202.
  • 33
    McArdle, W., Katch, F., Katch, V. (1996) Exercise Physiology 4th ed. Lea & Febiger Philadelphia.
  • 34
    Akinci, A., Celiker, A., Baykal, E., Tezic, T. (1993) Heart rate variability in diabetic children: sensitivity of the time- and frequency-domain methods. Pediatr Cardiol 14: 140146.
  • 35
    Rollins, M., Jenkins, J., Carson, D., McClure, B., Mitchell, R., Imam, S. (1992) Power spectral analysis of the electrocardiogram in diabetic children. Diabetologia 35: 452455.
  • 36
    Javorka, K., Buchanec, J., Javorkova, J., Zibolen, M., Minarik, M. (1988) Heart rate and its variability in juvenile hypertonics during respiratory maneuvers. Clin Exp Hypertens 10: 391409.
  • 37
    Schechtman, V., Harper, R., Kluge, K., Wilson, A., Hoffman, H., Southall, D. (1989) Heart rate variation in normal infants and victims of the sudden infant death syndrome. Early Hum Dev 19: 167181.
  • 38
    Umetani, K., Singer, D., McCraty, R., Atkinson, M. (1998) Twenty-four hour time domain heart rate variability and heart rate: relations to age and gender over nine decades. J Am Coll Cardiol 31: 593601.
  • 39
    Stein, P., Rottman, J., Kleiger, R. (1996) Effect of 21 mg transdermal nicotine patches and smoking cessation on heart rate variability. Am J Cardiol 77: 701705.