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Keywords:

  • dietary treatment;
  • meal replacements;
  • long-term weight loss;
  • biomarkers for disease

Abstract

Objective: To investigate the contribution of meal and snack replacements for long-term weight maintenance and risk factor reduction in obese patients.

Research Methods and Procedures: Prospective, randomized, two-arm, parallel intervention for 12 weeks followed by a prospective single-arm 4-year trial in a University Hospital clinic. One hundred patients, >18 years old and with a body mass index > 25 and ≤ 40 kg/m2, were prescribed a 1200 to 1500 kcal/d control diet (Group A) or an isoenergetic diet, including two meal and snack replacements (vitamin- and mineral-fortified shakes, soups, and bars) and one meal high in fruits and vegetables (Group B). Following a 3 months of weight loss, all patients were prescribed the same energy-restricted diet (1200 to 1500 kcal) with one meal and one snack replacement for an additional 4 years.

Results: All 100 patients were evaluated at 12 weeks. Mean percentage weight loss was 1.5 ± 0.4% and 7.8 ± 0.5% (mean ± SEM) for Groups A and B, respectively. At 12 weeks systolic blood pressure, plasma triacylglycerol, glucose, and insulin concentrations were significantly reduced in Group B, whereas no changes occurred in Group A. After 4 years, 75% of the patients were evaluated. Total mean weight loss was 3.2 ± 0.8% for Group A and 8.4 ± 0.8% (mean ± SEM) for Group B. Both groups showed significant improvement in blood glucose and insulin (p < 0.001), but only Group B showed significant improvement in triacylglycerol and systolic blood pressure compared to baseline values (p < 0.001).

Discussion: Providing a structured meal plan via vitamin- and mineral-fortified liquid meal replacements is a safe and effective dietary strategy for obese patients. Long-term maintenance of weight loss with meal replacements can improve certain biomarkers of disease risk.