SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Hubert, H. B., Feinleib, M., McNamara, P. M., Castelli, W. P. (1983) Obesity as an independent risk factor of cardiovascular disease: a 26-year follow-up of participants in the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation 67: 968977.
  • 2
    van Itallie, T. (1985) Health implications of overweight and obesity in the United States. Ann Intern Med 103: 983988.
  • 3
    Higgins, M., Kannel, W., Garrison, R., Pinsky, J., Stokes, J. (1988) Hazards of obesity: the Framingham experience. Acta Med Scand Suppl 723: 2326.
  • 4
    Pi-Sunyer, F. X. (1991) Health implications of obesity. Am J Clin Nutr 53: 1595S1603S.
  • 5
    Manson, J. E., Willett, W. C., Stampfer, M. J., et al (1995) Body weight and mortality among women. N Engl J Med 333: 677685.
  • 6
    Manson, J. E., Colditz, G. A., Stampfer, M. J., et al (1990) A prospective study of obesity and risk of coronary heart disease in women. N Engl J Med 322: 882889.
  • 7
    Stamler, J. (1991) Epidemiologic findings on body mass and blood pressure in adults. Ann Epidemiol 1: 347362.
  • 8
    MacMahon, S., Cutler, J., Brittian, E., Higgins, M. (1987) Obesity and hypertension: epidemiological and clinical issues. Eur Heart J 8: 5770.
  • 9
    Roccella, E. J., Burt, V., Horan, M. J., Cutler, J. (1993) Changes in hypertension awareness, treatment, and control rates: 20-year trend data. Ann Epidemiol 3: 547549.
  • 10
    Witteman, J. C., Willett, W. C., Stampfer, M. J., et al (1989) A prospective study of nutritional factors and hypertension among US women. Circulation 80: 13201327.
  • 11
    Keys, A. (1970) Coronary heart disease in seven countries. Circulation 41(Suppl 1): 1211.
  • 12
    Gillum, R. F., Taylor, H. L., Brozek, J., Polansky, P., Blackburn, H. (1982) Indices of obesity and blood pressure in young men followed 32 years. J Chronic Dis 35: 211219.
  • 13
    Denke, M. A., Sempos, C. T., Grundy, S. M. (1994) Excess body weight: an under-recognized contributor to dyslipidemia in white American women. Arch Intern Med 154: 401410.
  • 14
    Denke, M. A., Sempos, C. T., Grundy, S. M. (1993) Excess body weight: an underrecognized contributor to high blood cholesterol levels in white American men. Arch Intern Med 153: 10931103.
  • 15
    Montoye, H. J., Epstein, F. H., Kjelsberg, M. O. (1966) Relationship between serum cholesterol and body fatness: an epidemiological study. Am J Clin Nutr 18: 397406.
  • 16
    Jacobs, D. R., Burke, G. L., Liu, K. (1988) Relationships of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol with age and other factors: a cross-sectional analysis of the CARDIA Study. Am Clin Res 70: 3238.
  • 17
    Morrison, J. A., Payne, G., Barton, B. A., Khoury, P. R., Crawford, P. (1994) Mother-daughter correlations of obesity and cardiovascular disease risk factors in black and white households: the NHLBI Growth and Health Study. Am J Public Health 84: 17611767.
  • 18
    Birmingham, B., Dyer, A. R., Shekelle, R. B., Stamler, J. (1993) Subscapular and triceps skinfold thickness, body mass index, and cardiovascular risk factors in a cohort of middle-aged employed men. J Clin Epidemiol 46: 289302.
  • 19
    Must, A., Spadano, J., Coakley, E. H., Field, A. E., Colditz, G., Dietz, W. H. (1999) The disease burden associated with overweight and obesity. JAMA 282: 15231529.
  • 20
    Calle, E. E., Thun, J., Petrelli, J. M., Rodriguez, G., Heath, C. W. Jr (1999) Body mass index and mortality in a prospective cohort of U.S. adults. N Engl J Med 341: 10971105.
  • 21
    Kuczmarski, R. J., Flegal, K. M., Campbell, S. M., Johnson, C. L. (1994) Increasing prevalence of overweight among US adults: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 1960 to 1991. JAMA 272: 205211.
  • 22
    Mokdad, A. H., Serdula, M. K., Dietz, W. H., Bowman, B. A., Marks, J. S., Koplan, J. P. (1999) The spread of the obesity epidemic in the United States, 1991–1998. JAMA 282: 15191522.
  • 23
    National Center for Health Statistics (1998) Health. United States. National Center for Health Statistics Hyattsville, MD.
  • 24
    Allison, D. B., Fontaine, K. R., Manson, J. E., Stevens, J., VanItallie, T. B. (1999) Annual deaths attributable to obesity in the United States. JAMA 282: 15301538.
  • 25
    Burt, V. L., Welton, P., Roccella, E. J. (1995) Prevalence of hypertension in the US adult population. Results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1991. Hypertension 25: 305313.
  • 26
    Burt, V. L., Colter, J. A., Higgins, M. (1995) Trends in the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in the adult US population. Data from the health examination surveys, 1960 to 1991. Hypertension 26: 6069.
  • 27
    Johnson, C. L., Rifkind, B. M., Sempos, C. T. (1993) Declining serum total cholesterol levels among US adults. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. JAMA 269: 30023008.
  • 28
    Sempos, C. T., Cleeman, J. I., Carroll, M. D. (1993) Prevalence of high blood cholesterol among adults. An update based on guidelines from the second report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel. JAMA 269: 30093014.
  • 29
    Troiano, R. P., Flegal, K. M., Kuczmarski, R. J. (1995) Overweight prevalence and trends for children and adolescents. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. 1963 to 1991. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 149: 10851091.
  • 30
    Dittus, K. L., Beerman, K. A., Schneckenburger, C. A. (1995) A comparison of three anthropometric measurement classifications for assessing body weight. Top Clin Nutr 10: 5866.
  • 31
    Weigley, E. S. (1994) The body mass index in clinical practice. Top Clin Nutr 9: 7075.
  • 32
    National Institutes of Health. (1998) Clinical Guidelines on the Identification, Evaluation and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults: Evidence Report. National Institutes of Health, Publication no. 98-4083. Bethesda, MD.
  • 33
    Ezzati, T. M., Massey, J. T., Waksburg, J., Chu, A., Maurer, K. R. (1992) Sample design: Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Vital Health Stat 2 113: 135.
  • 34
    National Center for Health Statistics (1994) Plan and operation of the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994. Series 1: programs and collection procedures. Vital Health Stat 1 32: 1407.
  • 35
    World Health Organization (1998) Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic. Report of the WHO Consultation on Obesity. World Health Organization Geneva.
  • 36
    National Research Council. Committee on Diet and Health (1989) Implications for Reducing Chronic Disease Risk. National Academy Press Washington, DC.
  • 37
    World Health Organization. (1995) Physical Status: The Use and Interpretation of Anthropometry. Report of a WHO Expert Committee Geneva: World Health Organization, Technical Report Series; 854: 1452.
  • 38
    United States Department of Agriculture Food and Nutrition Information Center (1995) Nutrition and Your Health: Dietary Guidelines for Americans. 3rd ed. Government Printing Office Washington, DC.
  • 39
    Sichieri, R., Everhart, J. E., Hubbard, V. S. (1992) Relative weight classifications in the assessment of underweight and overweight in the United States. Int J Obes 16: 303312.
  • 40
    National High Blood Pressure Education Program. (1997) The Sixth Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Publication no. 98-4080. Bethesda, MD.
  • 41
    National Cholesterol Education Program (1994) Second Report of the Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. (Adult Treatment Panel II). Circulation 89: 13331445.
  • 42
    National Center for Health Statistics (1996) Analytic and reporting guidelines. In: NHANES III. Reference Manuals and Reports. [CD-ROM]. National Center for Health Statistics Hyattsville, MD.
  • 43
    Shah, B. V., Barnwell, B. G., Hunt, P. N., Nileen, P., LaVange, L. M. (1991) SUDAAN User's Manual, Release 5.50. Research Triangle Institute Research Triangle Park, NC.
  • 44
    Albanes, D., Jones, Y., Micozzi, M. S., Mattson, M. E. (1987) Associations between smoking and body weight in the US population: analysis of NHANES II. Am J Public Health 77: 439444.
  • 45
    Garrison, R. J., Kannel, W. B., Feinleib, M., Castelli, W. P., McNamara, P. M., Padgett, S. J. (1978) Cigarette smoking and HDL cholesterol: the Framingham offspring study. Atherosclerosis 30: 1725.
  • 46
    Willett, W. C., Manson, J. E., Stampfer, M. J., et al (1995) Weight, weight change, and coronary heart disease in women: risk within the “normal” weight range. JAMA 273: 461465.
  • 47
    Cutler, J. (1991) Randomized clinical trials of weight reduction in nonhypertensive persons. Ann Epidemiol 1: 363370.
  • 48
    Trials of Hypertension Prevention Collaborative Group (1992) The effects of nonpharmacologic interventions on blood pressure of persons with high normal levels. Results of the Trials of Hypertension Prevention, Phase I. JAMA 267: 12131220.
  • 49
    Davis, B. R., Blauxfox, M. D., Oberman, A. (1993) Reduction in long-term antihypertensive medication requirements. Effects of weight reduction by dietary intervention in overweight persons with hypertension. Arch Intern Med 153: 17731782.
  • 50
    Applegate, W. B., Miller, S. T., Zelam, J. T., et al (1992) Nonpharmacologic intervention to reduce blood pressure in older patients with mild hypertension. Arch Intern Med 152: 11621166.
  • 51
    Grundy, S. M., Denke, M. A. (1990) Dietary influences on serum lipids and lipoproteins. J Lipid Res 31: 11491172.
  • 52
    Caggiula, A. W., Christakis, G., Farrand, M. (1981) he multiple risk intervention trial (MRFIT). IV. Intervention on blood lipids.. Prev Med. 10: 443475.
  • 53
    Dattilo, A. M., Kris-Etherton, P. M. (1992) Effects of weight reduction on blood lipids and lipoproteins: a meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 56: 320328.
  • 54
    Wood, P. D., Stefanick, M. L., Williams, P. T., Haskell, W. L. (1991) The effects on plasma lipoproteins of a prudent weight-reducing diet with or without exercise, in overweight men and women. N Engl J Med 325: 461466.
  • 55
    Wood, P. D., Stefanick, M. L., Dreon, D. M., et al (1988) Changes in plasma lipids and lipoproteins in overweight men during weight loss through dieting as compared with exercise. N Engl J Med 319: 11731179.
  • 56
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (1994) Daily dietary fat and total food-energy intakes: Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, Phase 1, 1988–91. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 43: 116117.
  • 57
    Ernst, N. D., Sempos, C. T., Briefel, R. R., Clark, M. B. (1997) Consistency between US dietary fat intake and serum total cholesterol concentrations: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Am J Clin Nutr. 66(Suppl 4): 965S972S.
  • 58
    Schucker, B., Wittes, J. T., Santanello, N. C. (1991) Change in cholesterol awareness and action. Results from national and public surveys.. Arch Intern Med. 151, 666673.
  • 59
    Briefel, R. R., McDowell, M. A., Alaimo, K., et al (1995) Total energy intake of the US population: the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1991. Am J Clin Nutr 62(Suppl 4): 1072S1080S.
  • 60
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (1993) Prevalence of sedentary lifestyle: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, United States, 1991. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 42: 576579.
  • 61
    Ernst, N. D., Obarzanek, E., Clark, M. B., Briefel, R. R., Brown, C. D., Donato, K. (1997) Cardiovascular health risks related to overweight. J Am Diet Assoc 97: S47S51.
  • 62
    Williamson, D. F., Madans, J., Anda, R. F., Kleinman, J. C., Gavin, G. A., Byers, T. (1991) Smoking cessation and severity of weight gain in a national cohort. N Engl J Med 324: 739745.
  • 63
    Flegal, K. M., Troiano, R., Pamuck, E., Kuczmarski, R., Campbell, S. (1995) The influence of smoking cessation on the prevalence of overweight in the United States. N Engl J Med 333: 11651170.
  • 64
    Bjorntorp, P. (1993) Visceral obesity: a “civilization syndrome.” Obes Res 1: 206222.
  • 65
    Colditz, G. A., Willett, W. C., Rotnitzky, A., Manson, J. E. (1995) Weight gain as a risk factor for clinical diabetes mellitus in women. Ann Intern Med 122: 481486.