Objective: To establish whether single daily oral doses of oleoyl-estrone result in dose-dependent slimming effects on normal weight rats, and to determine the changes in energy parameters induced by this treatment.
Research Methods and Procedures: The effects of a daily oral gavage of oleoyl-estrone (0, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, and 20 μmol/kg per day) in 0.2 ml of sunflower oil given over a 10-day period were studied in groups, each of which contained six adult female Wistar rats initially weighing 190 to 230 g. A group of intact control rats receiving no gavage was included for comparison. Body weight and food intake were measured daily. Rats were killed on day 10 of treatment, and body composition (protein nitrogen, lipids, and water), liver lipids, and plasma parameters (glucose, triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, free fatty acids, 3-hydroxybutyrate, urea, aspartate, alanine transaminases, insulin, leptin, and free and acyl-estrone) were measured.
Results: The administration of oleoyl-estrone resulted in a dose-dependent loss of body fat, because of a partly maintained energy expenditure combined with decreased food intake. The differences in the energy budget were met by internal fat pools. The changes recorded did not affect the levels of the main plasma energy homeostasis indicators: unaltered glucose, triacylglycerols, free fatty acids, 3hydroxybutyrate, and urea. Protein was accrued even under conditions of severe lipid store drainage. There were no changes in transaminases. No lipid accumulation was recorded in the liver. Plasma insulin and leptin levels decreased with increased oleoyl-estrone doses, whereas the levels of free and esterified estrone increased with treatment, although not in proportion to the dose received.
Discussion: Oral treatment with oleoyl-estrone resulted in the specific dose-related loss of fat reserves with little change to other metabolic parameters. These results agree with the postulated role of oleoyl-estrone as a ponderostat signal.