• 1
    Pickup, J. C., Crook, M. A. (1998) Is type II diabetes mellitus a disease of the innate immune system?. Diabetologia 41: 12411248.
  • 2
    Yudkin, J. S., Kumari, M., Humphries, S. E., Mohamed-Ali, V. (2000) Inflammation, obesity, stress and coronary heart disease: is interleukin-6 the link?. Atherosclerosis 148: 209214.
  • 3
    Fried, S. K., Bunkin, D. A., Greenberg, A. S. (1998) Omental and subcutaneous adipose tissues of obese subjects release interleukin-6: depot difference and regulation by glucocorticoid. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83: 847850.
  • 4
    Mohamed-Ali, V., Goodrick, S., Rawesh, A., et al (1997) Subcutaneous adipose tissue releases interleukin-6, but not tumor necrosis factor-alpha, in vivo. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 82: 41964200.
  • 5
    Vgontzas, A. N., Papanicolaou, D. A., Bixler, E. O., Kales, A., Tyson, K., Chrousos, G. P. (1997) Elevation of plasma cytokines in disorders of excessive daytime sleepiness: role of sleep disturbance and obesity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 82: 13131316.
  • 6
    Pickup, J. C., Chusney, G. D., Mattock, M. B. (2000) The innate immune response and type 2 diabetes: evidence that leptin is associated with a stress-related (acute-phase) reaction. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 52: 107112.
  • 7
    Bastard, J. P., Jardel, C., Bruckert, E., et al (2000) Elevated levels of interleukin 6 are reduced in serum and subcutaneous adipose tissue of obese women after weight loss. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 85: 33383342.
  • 8
    Knowler, W. C., Pettitt, D. J., Saad, M. F., Bennett, P. H. (1990) Diabetes mellitus in the Pima Indians: incidence, risk factors and pathogenesis. Diabetes Metab Rev 6: 127.
  • 9
    Weyer, C., Bogardus, C., Mott, D. M., Pratley, R. E. (1999) The natural history of insulin secretory dysfunction and insulin resistance in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Clin Invest 104: 787794.
  • 10
    Lillioja, S., Mott, D. M., Spraul, M., et al (1993) Insulin resistance and insulin secretory dysfunction as precursors of non-insulin–dependent diabetes mellitus. Prospective studies of Pima Indians. N Engl J Med 329: 198892.
  • 11
    Yudkin, J. S., Yajnik, C. S., Mohamed-Ali, V., Bulmer, K. (1999) High levels of circulating proinflammatory cytokines and leptin in urban, but not rural, Indians. A potential explanation for increased risk of diabetes and coronary heart disease [letter]. Diabetes Care 22: 3634.
  • 12
    Festa, A., D'Agostino, R. J., Howard, G., Mykkanen, L., Tracy, R. P., Haffner, S. M. (2000) Chronic subclinical inflammation as part of the insulin resistance syndrome: the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS). Circulation 102: 4247.
  • 13
    Weyer, C., Tataranni, P. A., Pratley, R. E. (2000) Insulin action and insulinemia are closely related to the fasting complement C3, but not of acylation-stimulating protein concentration. Diabetes Care 23: 779785.
  • 14
    Schmidt, M. I., Watson, R. L., Duncan, B. B., et al (1996) Clustering of dyslipidemia, hyperuricemia, diabetes, and hypertension and its association with fasting insulin and central and overall obesity in a general population. Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study Investigators. Metabolism 45: 699706.
  • 15
    Sayeed, M. M. (1996) Alterations in calcium signaling and cellular responses in septic injury. New Horiz 4: 7286.