• 1
    World Health Organization Consultation on Obesity (1998) Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic Division of Noncommunicable Diseases, Programme of Nutrition, Family and Reproductive Health, World Health Organization Geneva, Switzerland.
  • 2
    National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute Obesity Education Initiative Expert Panel (1998) Clinical guidelines on the identification, evaluation, and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults. Obes Res 6: 51S209.
  • 3
    Zamboni, M., Armellini, F., Harris, T., et al. (1997) Effects of age on body fat distribution and cardiovascular risk factors in women. Am J Clin Nutr 66: 1115.
  • 4
    Borkan, G. A., Hults, D. E., Gerzof, S. G., Robbins, A. H., Silbert, C. K. (1983) Age changes in body composition revealed by computed tomography. J Gerontol 38: 673677.
  • 5
    Molarius, A., Seidell, J. C. (1998) Selection of anthropometric indicators for classification of abdominal fatness—a critical review. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 22: 71927.
  • 6
    Iwao, S., Iwao, N., Muller, D. C., Elahi, D., Shimokata, H., Andres, R. (2000) Effect of aging on the relationship between multiple risk factors and waist circumference. J Am Geriatr Soc 48: 78894.
  • 7
    Iwao, N., Iwao, S., Muller, D. C., Elahi, D., Shimokata, H., Andres, R. (2000) A test of recently proposed BMI standards with respect to old age. Aging Clin Exp Res 12: 4619.
  • 8
    Shock, N. W., Greulich, R. C., Andres, R., et al. (1984) Normal Human Aging: The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, U.S. Government Printing Office Washington, DC. National Institutes of Health Publication 84-2450.
  • 9
    Warnick, G., Benderson, J., Albers, J. (1982) Dextran sufate-Mg2+ precipitation procedure for quantification of high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol. Clin Chem 28: 13791388.
  • 10
    Friedewald, W., Levy, R., Fredrickson, D. (1972) Estimation of the concentration of low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma without the use of the preparation ultracentrifuge. Clin Chem 18: 499502.
  • 11
    Committee on Statistics of the American Diabetes Association (1969) Standardization of the oral glucose tolerance test. Diabetes 18: 299307.
  • 12
    Soeldner, J. S., Slone, D. (1965) Critical variables in the radioimmunoassay of serum insulin using the double antibody technique. Diabetes 14: 771779.
  • 13
    Matthews, D. R., Hosker, J. P., Rudenski, A. S., Naylor, B. A., Treacher, D. F., Turner, R. C. (1985) Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and β-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man. Diabetologia 28: 4129.
  • 14
    American Diabetes Association (1997) Report of the expert committee on the diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 20: 118397.
  • 15
    World Health Organization (1999) Definition, Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus and Its Complications: Report of a WHO Consultation: Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus World Health Organization Geneva, Switzerland.
  • 16
    National Cholesterol Education Program (1994) Second report of the expert panel on detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults. Circulation 89: 1333432.
  • 17
    VanItallie, T. B. (1998) Waist circumference: a useful index in critical care and health promotion. Nutr Rev 56: 3002.
  • 18
    Pouliot, M-C, Després, J-P, Lemieux, S., et al. (1994) Waist circumference and abdominal sagittal diameter: best simple anthropometric indexes of abdominal visceral adipose tissue accumulation and related cardiovascular risk in men and women. Am J Cardiol 73: 460468.
  • 19
    Han, T. S., van Leer, E. M., Seidell, J. C., Lean, M. E. (1995) Waist circumference action levels in the identification of cardiovascular risk factors: prevalence study in a random sample. Br Med J 311: 14015.
  • 20
    Han, T., van Leer, E., Seidell, J., Lean, M. (1996) Waist circumference as a screening tool for cardiovascular risk factors: evaluation of receiver operating characteristics (ROC). Obes Res 4: 53347.
  • 21
    Keller, C., Thomas, K. (1995) Measurement of body fat and fat distribution. J Nurs Meas 3: 159174.
  • 22
    Lean, M., Han, T., Morrison, C. (1995) Waist circumference as a measure for indicating need for weight management. Br Med J 311: 15861.
  • 23
    Lean, M., Han, T., Seidell, J. (1998) Impairment of health and quality of life in people with large waist circumference. Lancet 351: 8536.
  • 24
    Turcato, E., Bosello, O., Di Francesco, V., et al. (2000) Waist circumference and abdominal sagittal diameter as surrogates of body fat distribution in the elderly: their relation with cardiovascular risk factors. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 24: 100510.
  • 25
    Booth, M. L., Hunter, C., Gore, C. J., Bauman, A., Owen, N. (2000) The relationship between body mass index and waist circumference: implications for estimates of the population prevalence of overweight. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 24: 105861.
  • 26
    Chumlea, W. C., Baumgartner, R. N., Garry, P. J., Rhyne, R. L., Nicholson, C., Wayne, S. (1992) Fat distribution and blood lipids in a sample of healthy elderly people. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 16: 12533.
  • 27
    Coon, P., Bleecker, E., Drinkwater, D., Meyers, D., Goldberg, A. (1989) Effects of body composition and exercise capacity on glucose tolerance, insulin, and lipoprotein lipids in healthy older men: a cross-sectional and longitudinal intervention study. Metabolism 38: 12019.
  • 28
    DiPietro, L., Katz, L. D., Nadel, E. R. (1999) Excess abdominal adiposity remains correlated with altered lipid concentrations in healthy older women. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 23: 4326.
  • 29
    Haarbo, J., Hassager, C., Riis, B. J., Christiansen, C. (1989) Relation of body fat distribution to serum lipids and lipoproteins in elderly women. Atherosclerosis 80: 5762.
  • 30
    Haffner, S. M., Fong, D., Hazuda, H. P., Pugh, J. A., Patterson, J. K. (1988) Hyperinsulinemia, upper body adiposity, and cardiovascular risk factors in non-diabetics. Metabolism 37: 33845.
  • 31
    Heitmann, B. L. (1992) The effects of gender and age on associations between blood lipid levels and obesity in Danish men and women aged 35–65 years. J Clin Epidemiol 45: 693702.
  • 32
    Houmard, J. A., Wheeler, W. S., McCammon, M. R., et al. (1991) An evaluation of waist to hip ratio measurement methods in relation to lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in men. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 15: 1818.
  • 33
    Jakicic, J. M., Donnelly, J. E., Jawad, A. F., Jacobsen, D. J., Gunderson, S. C., Pascale, R. (1993) Association between blood lipids and different measures of body fat distribution: effects of BMI and age. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 17: 1317.
  • 34
    Laws, A., King, A. C., Haskell, W. L., Reaven, G. M. (1993) Metabolic and behavioral covariates of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in postmenopausal women. J Am Geriatr Soc 41: 128994.
  • 35
    Mykkänen, L., Laasko, M., Pyörälä, K. (1992) Association of obesity and distribution of obesity with glucose tolerance and cardiovascular risk factors in the elderly. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 16: 695704.
  • 36
    Ostlund, R. E., Staten, M., Kohrt, W. M., Schultz, J., Malley, M. (1990) The ratio of waist-to-hip circumference, plasma insulin, and glucose intolerance as independent predictors of the HDL2 cholesterol level in older adults. N Engl J Med 322: 34.
  • 37
    Pouliot, M. C., Després, J-P, Moorjani, S., et al. (1989) Computed tomography-measured trunk fat and plasma lipoprotein levels in nonobese women. Metabolism 38: 124450.
  • 38
    Pouliot, M. C., Després, J-P, Nadeau, A., et al. (1992) Visceral obesity in men: associations with glucose tolerance, plasma insulin, and lipoprotein levels. Diabetes 41: 82634.
  • 39
    Richelsen, B., Pedersen, S. (1995) Associations between different anthropometric measurements of fatness and metabolic risk parameters in non-obese, healthy, middle-aged men. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 19: 169174.
  • 40
    Seidell, J. C., Cigolini, M., Charzewska, J., Ellsinger, B. M., Contaldo, F. (1988) Regional obesity and serum lipids in European women born in 1948. Acta Med Scand Suppl 723: 18997.
  • 41
    Seidell, J. C., Björntorp, P., Sjöström, L., Kvist, H., Sannerstedt, R. (1990) Visceral fat accumulation in men is positively associated with insulin, glucose, and C-peptide levels, but negatively with testosterone levels. Metabolism 39: 897901.
  • 42
    Seidell, J. C., Cigolini, M., Deslypere, J. P., Charzewska, J., Ellsinger, B-M, Cruz, A. (1991) Body fat distribution in relation to serum lipids and blood pressure in 38-year-old European men: the European fat distribution study. Atherosclerosis 86: 25160.
  • 43
    Sparrow, D., Borkan, G. A., Gerzof, S. G., Wisniewski, C., Silbert, C. (1986) Relationship of fat distribution to glucose tolerance: results of computed tomography on male participants of the Normative Aging Study. Diabetes 35: 4115.
  • 44
    Spiegelman, D., Israel, R., Bouchard, C., Willett, W. (1992) Absolute fat mass, percent body fat, and body-fat distribution: which is the real determinant of blood pressure and serum glucose? Am J Clin Nutr 55: 10331044.
  • 45
    Takami, R., Takeda, N., Hayashi, M., et al. (2001) Body fatness and fat distribution as predictors of metabolic abnormalities and early carotid atherosclerosis. Diabetes Care 24: 124852.
  • 46
    Troisi, R. J., Weiss, S. T., Segal, M. R., Cassano, P. A., Vokonas, P. S., Landsberg, L. (1990) The relationship of body fat distribution to blood pressure in normotensive men: the normative aging study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 14: 51525.
  • 47
    Ward, K. D., Sparrow, D., Vokonas, P. S., Willett, W. C., Landsberg, L., Weiss, S. T. (1994) The relationships of abdominal obesity, hyperinsulinemia and saturated fat intake to serum lipid levels: the Normative Aging Study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 18: 137144.
  • 48
    Zamboni, M., Armellini, F., Cominacini, L., et al. (1994) Obesity and regional body-fat distribution in men: separate and joint relationships to glucose tolerance and plasma lipoproteins. Am J Clin Nutr 60: 6827.
  • 49
    Goodman-Gruen, D., Barrett-Connor, E. (1996) Sex differences in measures of body fat and body fat distribution in the elderly. Am J Epidemiol 143: 898906.
  • 50
    Haffner, S. M., Katz, M. S., Dunn, J. F. (1991) Increased upper body and overall adiposity is associated with decreased sex hormone binding globulin in postmenopausal women. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 15: 4718.
  • 51
    Schwartz, R. S., Shuman, W. P., Bradbury, V. L., et al. (1990) Body fat distribution in healthy young and older men. J Gerontol 45: M1815.