• 1
    American Heart Association (2001) 2001 Heart and Stroke Statistical Update. American Heart Association: Dallas, TX.
  • 2
    Kuczmarski, R. J., Flegal, K. M., Campbell, S. M., Johnson, C. L. (1994) Increasing prevalence of overweight among US adults: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 1960 to 1991. J Am Med Assoc. 272: 205211.
  • 3
    Rosenbaum, M., Leibel, R. L., Hirsch, J. (1997) Medical progress: obesity. N Engl J Med. 337: 396407.
  • 4
    Wolf, A. M. (1998) What is the economic case for treating obesity? Obes Res. 6: 2S7S.
  • 5
    Wolf, A. M., Corditz, G. A. (1998) Current estimates of the economic cost of obesity in the United States. Obes Res. 6: 97106.
  • 6
    Kortt, M. A., Langley, P. C., Cox, E. R. (1998) A review of cost-of-illness studies in obesity. Clin Ther. 20: 772779.
  • 7
    Reavin, G. M. (1988) Banting lecture: role of insulin resistance in human disease. Diabetes. 37: 15951607.
  • 8
    Lew, E. A., Garfinkel, L. (1979) Variations in mortality by weight among 750,000 men and women. J Chron Dis. 32: 563576.
  • 9
    Garrison, R. J., Castelli, W. P. (1985) Weight and 30-year mortality of men in the Framingham Study. Ann Intern Med. 103: 10061009.
  • 10
    Manson, J. E., Willett, W. C., Stampfer, M. J., et al (1995) Body weight and mortality among women. N Engl J Med. 333: 677685.
  • 11
    Rabkin, M. T., Mathewson, F. A., Hsu, P. H. (1977) Relation of body weight to development of ischemic heart disease in a cohort of young North American men after a 26 year observation period: the Manitoba Study. Am J Cardiol. 39: 452458.
  • 12
    Eckel, R. H., Krauss, R. M. (1998) American Heart Association call to action: obesity as a major risk factor for coronary artery disease. Circulation. 97: 20992100.
  • 13
    Pi-Sunyer, F. X. (1993) Medical hazards of obesity. Ann Intern Med. 119: 655660.
  • 14
    Feinleib, M. (1985) Epidemiology of obesity in relation to health hazards. Ann Intern Med. 103: 10191024.
  • 15
    Thompson, D., Edelsberg, J., Colditz, G. A., Bird, A. P., Oster, G. (1999) Lifetime health and economic consequences of obesity. Arch Intern Med. 159: 21772183.
  • 16
    Harris, P. J., Harrell, F. E., Jr, Lee, K. L., Behar, V. S., Rosati, R. A. (1979) Survival in medically treated coronary artery disease. Circulation. 60: 12591269.
  • 17
    Califf, R. M., Harrell, F. E., Jr, Lee, K. L., et al (1989) The evolution of medical and surgical therapy for coronary artery disease: a 15-year perspective. J Am Med Assoc. 261: 20772086.
  • 18
    National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Obesity Education Initiative Expert Panel (1998) Clinical Guidelines on the Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults: The Evidence Report. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute: Rockville, MD.
  • 19
    Rosati, R. A., McNeer, J. F., Starmer, C. F., Mittler, B. S., Morris, J. J., Jr, Wallace, A. G. (1975) A new information system for medical practice. Arch Intern Med. 135: 10171024.
  • 20
    Fortin, D. F., Califf, R. M., Pryor, D. B., Mark, D. B. (1995) The way of the future redux. Am J Cardiol. 76: 11771182.
  • 21
    Mark, D. B., Nelson, C. L., Califf, R. M., et al (1994) The continuing evolution of therapy for coronary artery disease: initial results from the era of coronary angioplasty. Circulation. 89: 20152025.
  • 22
    Mark, D. B., Granger, C. B., Ellis, S. G., et al (1996) Costs of direct angioplasty versus thrombolysis for acute myocardial infarction: results from the GUSTO II randomized trial. Circulation. 94: 168 (abstr).
  • 23
    Gold, M. R., Siegel, J. E., Russell, L. B., Weinstein, M. C. (1996) Cost-Effectiveness in Health and Medicine. Oxford University Press: New York, NY.
  • 24
    Bang, H., Tsiatis, A. A. (2000) Estimating medical costs with censored data. Biometrika. 87: 329343.
  • 25
    Franzosi, M. G., Santoro, E., de Vita, C., et al (1998) Ten-year follow-up of the first megatrial testing thrombolytic therapy in patients with acute myocardial infarction: results of the Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza hell'Infarto Miocardico (GISSI-I) study. Circulation. 98: 26592665.
  • 26
    Eisenstein, E. L., Shaw, L. K., Nelson, C. L., Hakim, Z., Hasselblad, V., Mark, D. B. (2001) Assessing the clinical and economic burden of coronary artery disease: 1986–1998. Med Care. 39: 824835.
  • 27
    Barbash, G. I., Reiner, J., White, H. D., et al (1995) Evaluation of paradoxic beneficial effects of smoking in patients receiving thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction: mechanism of the “smoker's paradox” from the GUSTO-I trial, with angiographic insights. J Am Coll Cardiol. 26: 12221229.
  • 28
    Patel, V., Topol, E. J. (2001) Lessons from the GUSTO trials. In Topol, EJ (ed). Acute Coronary Syndromes. Marcel Dekker: New York, NY. pp. 725764.
  • 29
    Gottlieb, S. H., Fallavollita, J., McDermott, M. F., Brown, M. L., Eberly, S., Moss, A. J. (1994) Cigarette smoking and age at onset of a first non-fatal myocardial infarction. Coron Artery Dis. 5: 687694.
  • 30
    Andrikopoulos, G. K., Richter, D. J., Dilaveris, P. E., et al (2001) Inhospital mortality of habitual cigarette smokers after acute myocardial infarction: the “smoker's paradox” in a countrywide study. Eur Heart J. 22: 776784.
  • 31
    Goldstein, M. G., Niaura, R. (1998) Smoking. In Topol, EJ (ed). Comprehensive Cardiovascular Medicine. Lippincott-Raven: Philadelphia, PA. pp. 159184.
  • 32
    Stone, N. J. (1998) Diet, nutritional issues, and obesity. In Topol, EJ (ed). Comprehensive Cardiovascular Medicine. Lippincott-Raven: Philadelphia, PA. pp. 4570.
  • 33
    Frank, S., Colliver, J. A., Frank, A. (1986) The electrocardiogram in obesity: statistical analysis of 1029 patients. J Am Coll Cardiol. 7: 295299.
  • 34
    Suwaidi, J. A., Higano, S. T., Holmes, D., Jr, Lennon, R., Lerman, A. (2001) Obesity is independently associated with coronary endothelial dysfunction in patients with normal or mildly diseased coronary arteries. J Am Coll Cardiol. 37: 15231528.
  • 35
    Quesenberry, C. P., Caan, B., Jacobson, A. (1998) Obesity, health service use, and health care costs among members of a health maintenance organization. Arch Intern Med. 159: 21772183.
  • 36
    Thompson, D., Brown, J. B., Nichols, G. A., Elmer, P. J., Oster, G. (2001) Body mass index and future healthcare costs: a retrospective cohort study. Obes Res. 9: 210218.