• 1
    Pamuk, E., Makuc, D., Heck, K., Reuben, C., Lochner, K. (1998) Socioeconomic Status and Health Chartbook: Health United States. National Center for Health Statistics: Hyattsville, MD.
  • 2
    Must, A., Spadano, J., Coakley, E., Field, A., Colditz, G., Dietz, W. (1999) The disease burden associated with overweight and obesity. J Am Med Assoc. 282: 15231529.
  • 3
    Anderson, J. J., Felson, D. T. (1988) Factors associated with osteoarthritis of the knee in the first national Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HANES I): evidence for an association with overweight, race, and physical demands of work. Am J Epidemiol. 128: 179189.
  • 4
    Kumanyika, S. K., Obarzanek, E., Stevens, V. J., Hebert, P. R., Whelton, P. K. (1991) Weight-loss experience of black and white participants in NHBLI-sponsored clinical trials. Am J Clin Nutr. 53: 1631S1638S.
  • 5
    Rosett, Wylie J., Wassertheil-Smoller, S., Blaufox, M. D., et al (1993) Trial of antihypertensive interventions and management: greater efficacy with weight reduction than with a sodium-potassium intervention. J Am Diet Assoc. 93: 40815.
  • 6
    Yanovski, S. Z., Gormally, J. F., Leser, M. S., Gwirtsman, H. E., Yanovski, J. (1994) Binge eating disorder affects outcome of comprehensive very low calorie diet treatment. Obes Res. 2: 205212.
  • 7
    Darga, L., Holden, J. H., Olson, S. M., Lucas, C. P. (1994) Comparison of cardiovascular risk factors in obese blacks and whites. Obes Res. 2: 239245.
  • 8
    Wing, R. R., Anglin, K. (1996) Effectiveness of a behavioral weight control program for blacks and whites with NIDDM. Diabetes Care. 19: 409413.
  • 9
    Appel, L. J., Espeland, M., Whelton, P. K., et al (1995) Trial of Nonpharmacologic Intervention in the Elderly (TONE): design and rationale of blood pressure control trial. Ann Epidemiol. 5: 119129.
  • 10
    Whelton, P. K., Appel, L., Espeland, M. A., et al (1998) Sodium reduction and weight loss in the treatment of hypertension in older persons: a randomized controlled Trial of Nonpharmacologic Interventions in the Elderly (TONE). J Am Med Assoc. 279: 839846.
  • 11
    Espeland, M. A., Whelton, P. K., Kostis, J. B., et al (1999) Predictors and mediators of successful long-term withdrawal from antihypertenstive medications. Arch Fam Med. 8: 228236.
  • 12
    Self, M., Brewer, A., Kumanyika, S., Doroshenko, L., Carnaghi, M., Brancato, J. (1998) Pilot study to enhance start-up of a multicenter nutrition intervention trial. J Am Diet Assoc. 98: 322325.
  • 13
    Kumanyika, S. K., Bahnson, J., Bottom, J., et al (1997) Race and sex influences on the efficacy of nonpharmacologic step-down therapy in hypertensive older adults. Can J Cardiol. 13 (supp B): 369B.
  • 14
    Kumanyika, S. K. (1989) Weight reduction and sodium restriction in the management of hypertension. Clin Geriatr Med. 5: 769788.
  • 15
    Carter, W. B., McKenna, M., Martin, M. L., Andresen, E. M. (1989) Health education: special issues for older adults. Patient Educ Counsel. 13: 117131.
  • 16
    Laird, N. M., Ware, J. H. (1992) Random-effects models for longitudinal data. Biometrics. 38: 963974.
  • 17
    SAS Institute (1992) SAS Technical Report P-229: Changes and Enhancements, Release 6.06. SAS Institute Inc: Cary, NC.
  • 18
    Cox, D. R. (1972) Regression models and life tables. J Roy Stat Soc. 34B: 187197.
  • 19
    Chao, D., Farmer, D., Sevick, M. A., Espeland, M. A., Vitolins, M., Naughton, M. (2000) Session attendance, weight loss, and maintenance in a dietary intervention to control hypertension. Am J Health Behav. 24: 413421.
  • 20
    Langford, H. G., Blaufox, M. D., Oberman, A., et al (1985) Dietary therapy slows the return of hypertension after stopping prolonged medication. J Am Med Assoc. 253: 657664.
  • 21
    Wassertheil-Smoller, S., Langford, H. G., Blaufox, M. D., et al (1985) Effective dietary intervention in hypertensives: sodium restriction and weight reduction. J Am Diet Assoc. 85: 423430.
  • 22
    Stevens, V., Obarzanek, E., Cook, N. R., et al (2001) Long-term weight loss and change in blood pressure: results of trials of hypertension prevention, phase II. Ann Intern Med. 134: 111.
  • 23
    Elmer, P. J., Grimm, R. H., Flack, J., Laing, B. (1991) Dietary sodium reduction for hypertension prevention and treatment. Hypertension. 17 (Suppl 1): 182189.
  • 24
    Patterson, R. E., Kristal, A. R., Coates, R. J., et al (1996) Low-fat diet practices of older women: prevalence and implications for dietary assessment. J Am Diet Assoc. 96: 670679.
  • 25
    Kristal, A. R., Shattuck, A. L., Patterson, R. E. (1999) Differences in fat-related dietary patterns between black, Hispanic and white women: results from the Women's Health Trial Feasibility Study in Minority Populations. Public Health Nutr. 2: 253262.
  • 26
    Kumanyika, S., Krebs-Smith, S. (2001) Preventive nutrition issues in ethnic and socioeconomic groups in the United States. In Bendich, A. and Deckelbaum, RJ (eds). Primary and Secondary Preventive Nutrition. Humana Press: Totowa, NJ. pp. 325356.
  • 27
    Kumanyika, S., Tell, G. S., Shemanski, L., Polak, J., Savage, P. J. (1994) Eating patterns of community-dwelling older adults: the Cardiovascular Health Study. Ann Epidemiol. 4: 404415.
  • 28
    Karanja, N. M., McCullough, M. L., Kumanyika, S. K., et al (1999) Pre-enrollment diets of Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension trial participants. DASH Collaborative Research Group. J Am Diet Assoc. 99 (Suppl 8): S28S34.
  • 29
    Wadden, T. A., Foster, G. D., Wang, J., et al (1992) Clinical correlates of short- and long-term weight loss. Am J Clin Nutr. 56: 271S274S.
  • 30
    Kumanyika, S. K.. Obesity treatment in minorities. In Wadden, TA and Stunkard, AJ (eds). Obesity: Theory and Therapy. 3rd ed. Guilford Publications, Inc: New York, NY. (in press).
  • 31
    Rand, C. S., Kuldau, J. M. (1990) The epidemiology of obesity and self-defined weight problems in the general population: gender, race, age, and social class. Int J Eat Disord. 9: 329343.
  • 32
    Stevens, J., Kumanyika, S., Keil, J. E., Seibert, L. (1994) Body size perceptions and eating attitudes in elderly men. Obes Res. 2: 127134.
  • 33
    Stevens, J., Kumanyika, S. K., Keil, J. E. (1994) Attitudes toward body size and dieting: differences between black and white women. Am J Public Health. 84: 13221325.
  • 34
    Kumanyika, S. K., Wilson, J. F., Davenport, M. G. (1993) Weight-related attitudes and behaviors of black women. J Am Diet Assoc. 93: 416422.
  • 35
    Kumanyika, S. K. (2001) Minority populations. In Burke, LE and Ockene, IS (eds). Compliance in Healthcare and Research. Futura Publishing Company, Inc: Armonk, NY. pp. 195231.
  • 36
    King, A. C., Castro, C., Eyler, A. A., Wilcox, S., Sallis, J., Brownson, R. C. (2000) Personal and environmental factors associated with physical activity among different racial-ethnic groups of U.S. middle-aged and older-aged women. Health Psychol. 19: 354364.
  • 37
    Williamson, D. F., Kahn, H. S., Remington, P. L., Anda, R. F. (1990) The 10-year incidence of overweight and major weight gain in US adults. Arch Intern Med. 150: 665672.
  • 38
    Lewis, C. E., Jacobs, D. R., McCreath, H., et al (2000) Weight gain continues in the 1990s: 10-year trends in weight and overweight from the CARDIA study. Am J Epidemiol. 12: 11721181.
  • 39
    Goran, M. I., Weinsier, R. L. (2000) Role of environmental vs. metabolic factors in the etiology of obesity: time to focus on the environment. Obes Res. 8: 407409.
  • 40
    Weinsier, R. L., Hunter, G. R., Zuckerman, P. A., et al (2000) Energy expenditure and free-living physical activity in black and white women: comparison before and after weight loss. Am J Clin Nutr. 71: 11381146.
  • 41
    Kumanyika, S. K. (1997) The impact of obesity on hypertension management in African Americans. J Health Care Poor Underserv. 8: 352365.