• 1
    Mogul, H. R., Wynn, P. S., Frey, M., et al (1998) Weight gain in menopause: the role of estrogen replacement and other factors 362. The Endocrine Society 80th Annual Meeting.
  • 2
    O'Sullivan, A. J., Crampton, L. J., Freund, J., Ho, K. K. Y. (1998) The route of estrogen replacement therapy confers divergent effects on substrate oxidation and body composition in postmenopausal women. J Clin Invest 102: 10351040.
  • 3
    Gambacciani, M., Ciaponi, M., Cappagli, B., et al (1997) Body weight, body fat distribution, and hormonal replacement therapy in early postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 82: 414417.
  • 4
    Hanggi, W., Lippuner, K., Jaeger, P., Birkhauser, M. H., Horber, F. F. (1998) Differential impact of conventional oral or transdermal hormone replacement therapy or tibolone on body composition in postmenopausal women. Clin Endocrinol 48: 691699.
  • 5
    Weinstein, I., Cook, G. A., Heimberg, M. (1986) Regulation by oestrogen of carnitine palmitoyltransferase in hepatic mitochondria. Biochem J 237: 593596.
  • 6
    O'Sullivan, A. J., Hoffman, D. M., Ho, K. K. Y. (1995) Estrogen, lipid oxidation, and body fat. N Engl J Med 333: 669670.
  • 7
    McArdle, W. D., Katch, F. I., Katch, V. L. (1991) Energy expenditure at rest. Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance 162. Lea and Febiger Malvern, PA.
  • 8
    Schutz, Y., Jequier, E. (1998) Resting energy expenditure, thermic effect of food, and total energy expenditure. GA Bray, C. Bouchard, eds. Handbook of Obesity 443455. Marcel Dekker, Inc New York, NY.
  • 9
    Konarzewski, M., Diamond, J. (1995) Evolution of basal metabolic rate and organ masses in laboratory mice. Evolution 49: 12391248.
  • 10
    Walsh, B. W., Schiff, I., Rosner, B., Greenberg, L., Ravnikar, V., Sacks, F. M. (1991) Effects of postmenopausal estrogen replacement on the concentrations and metabolism of plasma lipoproteins. N Engl J Med 325: 11961204.
  • 11
    Moorjani, S., Dupont, A., Labrie, F., et al (1991) Changes in plasma lipoprotein and apolipoprotein composition in relation to oral versus percutaneous administration of estrogen alone or in cycle association with utrogestan in menopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 73: 373379.
  • 12
    Mandour, T., Kissebah, A. H., Wynn, V. (1977) Mechanism of oestrogen and progesterone effects on lipid and carbohydrate metabolism: alteration in the insulin:glucagon molar ratio and hepatic enzyme activity. Eur J Clin Invest 7: 181187.
  • 13
    Friedman, M. I., Harris, R. B., Ji, H., Ramiriz, I., Tordoff, M. G. (1999) Fatty acid oxidation affects food intake by altering hepatic energy status. Am J Physiol 276: R1046R1R53.
  • 14
    Dagnault, A., Ouerghi, D., Richard, D. (1993) Treatment with α-helical-CRF(9–41) prevents the anorectic effect of 17-β-estradiol. Brain Res Bull 32: 689692.
  • 15
    Harris, R. B., Martin, R. J. (1984) Recovery of body weight from below “set point” in mature female rats. J Nutr 114: 11431150.
  • 16
    Kersten, S., Seydoux, J., Peters, J. M., Gonzalez, F. J., Desvergne, B., Wahli, W. (1999) Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α mediates the adaptive response to fasting. J Clin Invest 103: 14891498.
  • 17
    Wade, G. N., Schneider, J. E. (1992) Metabolic fuels and reproduction in female mammals. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 16: 235272.
  • 18
    Bartness, T. J., Wade, G. N. (1984) Effects of interscapular brown adipose tissue denervation on body weight and energy metabolism in ovariectomized and estradiol-treated rats. Behav Neurosci 98: 674685.
  • 19
    Calles-Escandon, J., Malley, S. (1999) Estrogen replacement (ER) decreases lean body mass (LBM) accretion, preserves fat mass (FM) gain and decreases fat oxidation (FAT ox). Obes Res 7 (Suppl 1): 128S.
  • 20
    Vidal-Puig, A., Solanes, G., Grujic, D., Flier, J. S., Lowell, B. B. (1997) UCP3: an uncoupling protein homologue expressed preferentially and abundantly in skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 235: 7982.
  • 21
    Samec, S., Seydoux, J., Dulloo, A. G. (1998) Role of UCP homologues in skeletal muscles and brown adipose tissue: mediators of thermogenesis or regulators of lipids as fuel substrate? FASEB J 12: 715724.
  • 22
    Weigle, D. S., Selfridge, L. E., Schwartz, M. W., et al (1998) Elevated free fatty acids induce uncoupling protein 3 expression in muscle: a potential explanation for the effect of fasting. Diabetes 47: 298302.
  • 23
    Yoshida, T., Nishioka, H., Yoshioka, K., Kondo, M. (1987) Reduced norepinephrine turnover in interscapular brown adipose tissue of obese rats after ovariectomy. Metab Clin Exp 36: 16.
  • 24
    Edens, N. K., Wade, G. N. (1983) Effects of estradiol on tissue distribution of newly synthesized fatty acids in rats and hamsters. Physiol Behav 31: 703709.
  • 25
    Kemnitz, J. W., Gluck, Z., Bray, G. A. (1983) Ovarian hormones influence brown adipose tissue. Pharm Biochem Behav 18: 563566.
  • 26
    Guyard, B., Fricker, J., Brigant, L., Betoulle, D., Apfelbaum, M. (1991) Effects of ovarian steroids on energy balance in rats fed a highly palatable diet. Metabolism 40: 529533.
  • 27
    Richard, D. (1986) Effects of ovarian hormones on energy balance and brown adipose tissue thermogenesis. Am J Physiol 250: R245R2R9.