• 1
    Hernandez, L., Hoebel, B. G. (1988) Food reward and cocaine increase extracellular dopamine in the nucleus accumbens as measured by microdialysis. Life Sci. 42: 705712.
  • 2
    Radhakishun, F. S., van Ree, J. M., Westerink, B. H. C. (1988) Scheduled eating increases dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens of food-deprived rats as assessed with on-line brain dialysis. Neurosci Lett. 85: 351356.
  • 3
    Salamone, J. D., Cousins, M. S., McCullough, L. D., Carriero, D. L., Berkowitz, R. J. (1994) Nucleus accumbens dopamine release increases during instrumental lever pressing for food but not free food consumption. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 49: 2531.
  • 4
    Tanda, G., Di Chiara, G. (1998) A dopamine-mu1 opioid link in the rat ventral tegmentum shared by palatable food (Fonzies) and non-psychostimulant drugs of abuse. Eur J Neurosci. 10: 11791187.
  • 5
    Kelley, A. E., Bakshi, V. P., Fleming, S., Holahan, M. R. (2000) A pharmacological analysis of the substrates underlying conditioned feeding induced by repeated opioid stimulation of the nucleus accumbens. Neuropsychopharmacology. 23: 455467.
  • 6
    Pal, G. K., Thombre, D. P. (1993) Modulation of feeding and drinking by dopamine in caudate and accumbens nuclei in rats. Ind J Exp Biol. 31: 750754.
  • 7
    Ragnauth, A., Moroz, M., Bodnar, R. J. (2000) Multiple opioid receptors mediate feeding elicited by μ- and Δ-opioid receptor subtype agonists in the nucleus accumbens shell in rats. Brain Res. 876: 7687.
  • 8
    Guerin, B., Goeders, N. E., Dworkin, S. I., Smith, J. E. (1984) Intracranial self-administration of dopamine into the nucleus accumbens. Soc Neurosci Abstr. 10: 1072.
  • 9
    Hoebel, B. G., Monaco, A. P., Hernandez, L., Aulisi, E. F., Stanley, B. G., Lenard, L. (1983) Self-injection of amphetamine directly into the brain. Psychopharmacology. 81: 158163.
  • 10
    McBride, W. J., Murphy, J. M., Ikemoto, S. (1999) Localization of brain reinforcement mechanisms: intracranial self- administration and intracranial place-conditioning studies. Behav Brain Res. 101: 129152.
  • 11
    Olds, M. E. (1982) Reinforcing effects of morphine in the nucleus accumbens. Brain Res. 237: 429440.
  • 12
    Wise, R. A. (1989) Opiate reward: sites and substrates. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 13: 129133.
  • 13
    Di Chiara, G., Tanda, G., Bassareo, V., et al. (1999) Drug addiction as a disorder of associative learning: role of nucleus accumbens shell/extended amygdala dopamine. In McGinty, JF (ed). Advancing from the Ventral Striatum to the Extended Amygdala. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 877: 461485.
  • 14
    Hoebel, B. G. (1985) Brain neurotransmitters in food and drug reward. Am J Clin Nutr. 42: 11331150.
  • 15
    Wise, R. A. (1982) Common neural basis of brain stimulation reward, drug reward, and food reward. In Hoebel, BG and Novin, D. (eds). The Neural Basis of Feeding and Reward. Haer Institute: Brunswick, ME. 445454.
  • 16
    Nestler, E. J., Aghajanian, G. K. (1997) Molecular and cellular basis of addiction. Science. 278: 5863.
  • 17
    Hagan, M. M., Moss, D. E. (1991) An animal model of bulimia nervosa: opioid sensitivity to fasting episodes. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 39: 421422.
  • 18
    Specker, S. M., Lac, S. T., Carroll, M. E. (1994) Food deprivation history and cocaine self-administration: an animal model of binge eating. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 48: 10251029.
  • 19
    Colantuoni, C., Schwenker, J., Landenheim, B., et al. (1998) Circadian cycle of dietary restriction and overeating induces dopamine receptor and transporter changes. Soc Neurosci Abstr. 24: 193.
  • 20
    Colantuoni, C., Schwenker, J., McCarthy, J., et al. (2001) Excessive sugar intake alters binding to dopamine and mu-opioid receptors in the brain. NeuroReport. 12: 35493552.
  • 21
    Dimitriou, S. G., Rice, H. B., Corwin, R. L. (2000) Effects of limited access to a fat option on food intake and body composition in female rats. Int J Eat Disord. 28: 436445.
  • 22
    Koob, G. F. (1999) Drug reward and addiction. In Zigmond, MJ Bloom, FE Landis, SC Roberts, JL and Squire, LR (eds). Fundamental Neuroscience. Academic Press: San Diego, CA. 12451279.
  • 23
    Mutschler, N. H., Miczek, K. A. (1998) Withdrawal from a self-administered or non-contingent cocaine binge: differences in ultrasonic distress vocalizations in rats. Psychpharmacology. 136: 402408.
  • 24
    File, S. E., Andrews, N., Al-Farhan, M. (1993) Anxiogenic responses of rats on withdrawal from chronic ethanol treatment: effects of tianeptine. Alcohol. 28: 281286.
  • 25
    Le Magnen, J. (1990) A role for opiates in food reward and food addiction. In Capaldi, ED and Powley, TL (eds). Taste, Experience, and Feeding. American Psychological Association: Washington, DC. 241254.
  • 26
    Pothos, E., Rada, P., Mark, G. P., Hoebel, B. G. (1991) Dopamine microdialysis in the nucleus accumbens during acute and chronic morphine, naloxone-precipitated withdrawal and clonidine treatment. Brain Res. 566: 348350.
  • 27
    Rada, P., Mark, G. P., Pothos, E., Hoebel, B. G. (1991) Systemic morphine simultaneously decreases extracellular acetylcholine and increases dopamine in the nucleus accumbens of freely moving rats. Neuropharmacology. 30: 11331136.
  • 28
    Rada, P., Pothos, E., Mark, G. P., Hoebel, B. G. (1991) Microdialysis evidence that acetylcholine in the nucleus accumbens is involved in morphine withdrawal and its treatment with clonidine. Brain Res. 561: 354356.
  • 29
    Fiserova, M., Consolo, S., Krsiak, M. (1999) Chronic morphine induces long-lasting changes in acetylcholine release in the nucleus accumbens core and shell: an in vivo microdialysis study. Psychopharmacology. 142: 8594.
  • 30
    Rada, P. V., Mark, G. P., Taylor, K. M., Hoebel, B. G. (1996) Morphine and naloxone, i.p. or locally, affect extracellular acetylcholine in the accumbens and prefrontal cortex. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 53: 809816.
  • 31
    Colantuoni, C., McCarthy, J., Gibbs, G., Searls, E., Alisharan, S., Hoebel, B. G. (1997) Repeatedly restricted food access combined with highly palatable diet leads to opiate-like withdrawal symptoms during food deprivation in rats. Soc Neurosci Abstr. 23: 517.
  • 32
    Hoebel, B. G., Colantuoni, C., McCarthy, J., et al. (1999) Sugar addiction: neural and behavioral symptoms of sensitization and withdrawal. Obes Res. 7: 41S.
  • 33
    Hoebel, B G, Colantuoni, C., McCarthy, J., et al. (2000) Evidence for sugar addiction in rats. Appetite. 35: 292.
  • 34
    Hoebel, B. G., Chau, D., Kosloff, R. A., Taylor, J. L., Rada, P. (2001) Possible role of accumbens dopamine and acetylcholine in sugar withdrawal and behavioral depression. Appetite. 37: 142.
  • 35
    Hoebel, B. G., Rada, P. V., Mark, G. P., Pothos, E. N. (1999) Neural systems for reinforcement and inhibition of behavior: relevance to eating, addiction and depression. In Kahneman, D. Diener, E. and Shwarz, N. (eds). Well Being: The Foundations of Hedonic Psychology. Russel Sage Foundation: New York, NY. 560574.
  • 36
    Hoebel, B. G., Patten, C. S., Colantuoni, C., Rada, P. V. (2000) Sugar withdrawal causes symptoms of anxiety and acetylcholine release in the nucleus accumbens. Soc Neurosci Abstr. 501.12: 257.
  • 37
    Schulteis, G., Markou, A., Gold, L. H., Stinus, L., Koob, G. F. (1994) Relative sensitivity to naloxone of multiple indices of opiate withdrawal: a quantitative dose-response analysis. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 271: 13911398.
  • 38
    Bodnar, R. J. (1996) Opioid receptor subtype antagonists and ingestion. In Cooper, SJ and Clifton, PG (eds). Drug Receptor Subtypes and Ingestive Behaviour. Academic Press: San Diego, CA. 127166.
  • 39
    Maldonado, R., Stinus, L., Gold, L. H., Koob, G. F. (1992) Role of different brain structures in the expression of the physical morphine withdrawal syndrome. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 261: 669677.
  • 40
    Koob, G. F., Stinus, L., LeMoal, M., Bloom, F. E. (1989) Opponent process theory of motivation: neurobiological evidence from studies of opiate dependence. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 13: 135140.
  • 41
    Markou, A., Kosten, T. R., Koob, G. F. (1998) Neurobiological similarities in depression and drug dependence: a self-medication hypothesis. Neuropsychopharmacology. 18: 135174.
  • 42
    Marrazzi, M. A., Luby, E. D. (1990) The neurobiology of anorexia nervosa: an auto-addiction? In Cohen, M. and Foa, P. (eds). The Brain as an Endocrine Organ. Springer-Verlag: New York, NY. 4695.
  • 43
    Aston-Jones, G., Hirata, H., Akaoka, H. (1997) Local opiate withdrawal in locus coeruleus in vivo. Brain Res. 765: 331336.
  • 44
    Stinus, L., Le Moal, M., Koob, G. F. (1990) Nucleus accumbens and amygdala are possible substrates for the aversive stimulus effects of opiate withdrawal. Neuroscience. 37: 767773.
  • 45
    Rada, P., Jensen, K., Hoebel, B. G. (2001) Effects of nicotine and mecamylamine-induced withdrawal on extracellular dopamine and acetylcholine in the rat nucleus accumbens. Psychopharmacology. 157: 105110.
  • 46
    Mercer, M. E., Holder, M. D. (1997) Food cravings, endogenous opioid peptides, and food intake: a review. Appetite. 29: 325352.
  • 47
    Carr, K. D., Kim, G. Y., de Vaca, Cabeza S. (2000) Chronic food restriction in rats augments the central rewarding effect of cocaine and the Δ1 opioid agonist, DPDPE, but not the Δ2 agonist, deltorphin-II. Psychopharmacology (Berlin). 152: 200207.
  • 48
    Carroll, M. E., France, C. P., Meisch, R. A. (1979) Food deprivation increases oral and intravenous drug intake in rats. Science. 205: 319321.
  • 49
    Wolinsky, T. D., Carr, K. D. (1994) Effects of chronic food restriction on μ and κ binding in rat forebrain: a quantitative autoradiographic study. Brain Res. 656: 274280.
  • 50
    Campbell, U. C., Carroll, M. E. (2000) Reduction of drug self-administration by an alternative non-drug reinforcer in rhesus monkeys: magnitude and temporal effects. Psychopharmacology (Berlin). 147: 418425.
  • 51
    Le Magnen, J. (1987) Palatability: concept, terminology, and mechanisms. In Boake, RA Popplewell, DA and Burton, MJ (eds). Eating Habits: Food, Physiology and Learned Behaviour. John Wiley & Sons: New York, NY. 131154.
  • 52
    Blass, E. M., Hoffmeyer, L. B. (1991) Sucrose as an analgesic for newborn infants. Pediatrics. 87: 215218.
  • 53
    Kanarek, R. B., White, E. S., Biegen, M. T., Marks-Kaufman, R. (1991) Dietary influences on morphine-induced analgesia in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 38: 681684.
  • 54
    Levine, A. S., Billington, C. J. (1989) Opioids: are they regulators of feeding? Ann N Y Acad Sci. 575: 209220.
  • 55
    Bellinger, L. L., Bernardis, L. L., Williams, F. E. (1983) Naloxone suppression of food and water intake and cholecystokinin reduction of feeding is attenuated in weanling rats with dorsomedial hypothalamic lesions. Physiol Behav. 31: 839846.
  • 56
    Drewnowski, A., Krahn, D. D., Demitrack, M. A., Nairn, K., Gosnell, B. A. (1995) Naloxone, an opiate blocker, reduces the consumption of sweet high-fat foods in obese and lean female binge eaters. Am J Clin Nutr. 61: 12061212.
  • 57
    Levine, A. S., Weldon, D. T., Grace, M., Cleary, J. P., Billington, C. J. (1995) Naloxone blocks that portion of feeding driven by sweet taste in food-restricted rats. Am J Physiol. 268: R248RR52.
  • 58
    Sclafani, A., Aravich, P. F., Xenakis, S. (1982) Dopaminergic and endorphinergic mediation of a sweet reward. In Hoebel, BG and Novin, D. (eds). The Neural Basis of Feeding and Reward. Haer Institute: Brunswick, ME. 507515.
  • 59
    Siviy, S. M., Calcagnetti, D. J., Reid, L. D. (1982) Opioids and Palatability. In Hoebel, BG and Novin, D. (eds). The Neural Basis of Feeding and Reward. Haer Institute: Brunswick, ME. 517524.
  • 60
    Glass, M. J., Grace, M., Cleary, J. P., Billington, C. J., Levine, A. S. (1996) Potency of naloxone's anorectic effect in rats is dependent on diet preference. Am J Physiol. 271: R271.
  • 61
    Brewerton, T. D., Lydiard, R. B., Herzog, D. B., Brothman, A. W., O'Neil, P. M., Ballenger, J. C. (1995) Comorbidity of axis I psychiatric disorders in bulimia nervosa. J Clin Psychiatry. 56: 77.
  • 62
    Mitchell, J. E., Specker, S. M., de Zwaan, M. (1991) Comorbidity and medical complications of bulimia nervosa. J Clin Psychiatry. 52: S13S20.
  • 63
    Carr, K. D., Papadouka, V. (1994) The role of multiple opioid receptors in the potentiation of reward by food restriction. Brain Res. 639: 253260.
  • 64
    Levine, A. S., Grace, M., Billington, C. J. (1990) The effect of centrally administered naloxone on deprivation and drug-induced feeding. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 36: 409412.
  • 65
    Glass, M. J., Billington, C. J., Levine, A. S. (2000) Opioids, food reward, and macronutrient selection. In Berthoud, HR and Seeley, RJ (eds). Neural and Metabolic Control of Macronutrient Intake. CRC Press: New York, NY. 407424.
  • 66
    Grandison, L., Guidotti, A. (1977) Stimulation of food intake by muscimol and beta-endorphin. Neuropharmacology. 16: 533.
  • 67
    Leibowitz, S. F., Hor, L. (1982) Endorphinergic and α-noradrenergic systems in the paraventricular nucleus: effects on eating behavior. Peptides. 3: 421428.
  • 68
    McLean, S., Hoebel, B. G. (1982) Opiate and norepinephrine-induced feeding from the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus are dissociable. Life Sci. 31: 23792382.
  • 69
    Di Chiara, G., Tanda, G. (1997) Blunting of reactivity of dopamine transmission to palatable food: a biochemical marker of anhedonia in the CMS model? Psychopharmacology (Berlin). 134: 351–3. 371–7.
  • 70
    Scott, T. R., Mark, G. P. (1987) The taste system encodes stimulus toxicity. Brain Res. 414: 197203.
  • 71
    Unterwald, E. M., Fillmore, J., Kreek, M. J. (1996) Chronic repeated cocaine administration increases dopamine D1 receptor-mediated signal transduction. Eur J Pharmacol. 318: 3135.
  • 72
    Vaderschuren, L. J., Kalivas, P. W. (2000) Alterations in dopaminergic and glutaminergic transmission in the induction and expression of behavioral sensitization: a critical review of preclinical studies. Psychopharmacology (Berlin). 151: 99120.