Effect of Lifestyle Modification on Adipokine Levels in Obese Subjects with Insulin Resistance

Authors

  • Lais U. Monzillo,

    1. Clinical Research Center, Joslin Diabetes Center, and Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
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  • Osama Hamdy,

    1. Clinical Research Center, Joslin Diabetes Center, and Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
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  • Edward S. Horton,

    1. Clinical Research Center, Joslin Diabetes Center, and Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
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  • Sarah Ledbury,

    1. Clinical Research Center, Joslin Diabetes Center, and Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
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  • Cathy Mullooly,

    1. Clinical Research Center, Joslin Diabetes Center, and Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
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  • Catherine Jarema,

    1. Clinical Research Center, Joslin Diabetes Center, and Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
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  • Satoko Porter,

    1. Clinical Research Center, Joslin Diabetes Center, and Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
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  • Kerry Ovalle,

    1. Clinical Research Center, Joslin Diabetes Center, and Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
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  • Amr Moussa,

    1. Clinical Research Center, Joslin Diabetes Center, and Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
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  • Christos S. Mantzoros

    Corresponding author
    1. Clinical Research Center, Joslin Diabetes Center, and Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
    2. Beth Israel Deaconess, Division of Endocrinology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
      Endocrinology RN 325, 99 Brookline Ave., Boston, MA 02215. E-mail: cmantzor@bidmc.harvard.edu
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Endocrinology RN 325, 99 Brookline Ave., Boston, MA 02215. E-mail: cmantzor@bidmc.harvard.edu

Abstract

Objective: To study the effect of weight loss in response to a lifestyle modification program on the circulating levels of adipose tissue derived cytokines (adipokines) in obese individuals with insulin resistance.

Research Methods and Procedures: Twenty-four insulin-resistant obese subjects with varying degrees of glucose tolerance completed a 6-month program consisting of combined hypocaloric diet and moderate physical activity. Adipokines [leptin, adiponectin, resistin, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6)] and highly sensitive C-reactive protein were measured before and after the intervention. Insulin sensitivity index was evaluated by the frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test.

Results: Participants had a 6.9 ± 0.1 kg average weight loss, with a significant improvement in sensitivity index and reduction in plasma leptin (27.8 ± 3 vs. 23.6 ± 3 ng/mL, p = 0.01) and IL-6 (2.75 ± 1.51 vs. 2.3 ± 0.91 pg/mL, p = 0.012). TNF-α levels tended to decrease (2.3 ± 0.2 vs. 1.9 ± 0.1 pg/mL, p = 0.059). Adiponectin increased significantly only among diabetic subjects. The reductions in leptin were correlated with the decreases in BMI (r = 0.464, p < 0.05) and with changes in highly sensitive C-reactive protein (r = 0.466, p < 0.05).

Discussion: Weight reduction in obese individuals with insulin resistance was associated with a significant decrease in leptin and IL-6 and a tendency toward a decrease in circulating TNF-α, whereas adiponectin was increased only in diabetic subjects. Further studies are needed to elucidate the relationship between changes of adipokines and the health benefits of weight loss.

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