• 1
    Mignot, E. (1998) Genetic and familial aspects of narcolepsy. Neurology 50: S16S22.
  • 2
    Chemelli, R. M., Willie, J. T., Sinton, C. M., et al (1999) Narcolepsy in orexin knockout mice: molecular genetics of sleep regulation. Cell 98: 43751.
  • 3
    Lin, L., Faraco, J., Li, R., et al (1999) The sleep disorder canine narcolepsy is caused by a mutation in the hypocretin (orexin) receptor 2 gene. Cell 98: 36576.
  • 4
    Nishino, S., Ripley, B., Overeem, S., Lammers, G. J., Mignot, E. (2000) Hypocretin (orexin) deficiency in human narcolepsy. Lancet 355: 3940.
  • 5
    Cave, H. A. (1931) Narcolepsy. Arch Neurol Psychiatr 26: 50101.
  • 6
    Daniels, L. E. (1934) Narcolepsy. Medicine 13: 1122.
  • 7
    Roth, B. (1962) Narkolepsie und Hypersomnie VEB Verlag Volk und Gesundheit Berlin.
  • 8
    Bell, I. R. (1976) Diet histories in Narcolepsy. Guilleminault, C Dement, WC Passouant, P eds. Narcolepsy 2218. Spectrum New York.
  • 9
    Kotagal, S., Hartse, K. M., Walsh, J. K. (1990) Characteristics of narcolepsy in preteenaged children. Pediatrics 85: 2059.
  • 10
    Allsopp, M. R., Zaiwalla, Z. (1992) Narcolepsy. Arch Dis Child 67: 3026.
  • 11
    Dahl, R. E., Holttum, J., Trubnick, L. (1994) A clinical picture of child and adolescent narcolepsy. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 33: 83441.
  • 12
    Schuld, A., Hebebrand, J., Geller, F., Pollmacher, T. (2000) Increased body-mass index in patients with narcolepsy. Lancet 355: 12745.
  • 13
    Dahmen, N., Bierbrauer, J., Kasten, M. (2001) Increased prevalence of obesity in narcoleptic patients and relatives. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 251: 859.
  • 14
    Björntorp, P. (1997) Body fat distribution, insulin resistance, and metabolic diseases. Nutrition 13: 795803.
  • 15
    Calle, E. E., Thun, M. J., Petrelli, J. M., Rodriguez, C., Heath, C. W., Jr (1999) Body-mass index and mortality in a prospective cohort of U.S. adults. N Engl J Med 341: 1097105.
  • 16
    Narbro, K., Jonsson, E., Larsson, B., Waaler, H., Wedel, H., Sjöström, L. (1996) Economic consequences of sick-leave and early retirement in obese Swedish women. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 20: 895903.
  • 17
    World Health Organization (2000) Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic. Report of a WHO consultation. World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser 894: 1253.
  • 18
    Hara, J., Beuckmann, C. T., Nambu, T., et al (2001) Genetic ablation of orexin neurons in mice results in narcolepsy, hypophagia, and obesity. Neuron 30: 34554.
  • 19
    Sakurai, T., Amemiya, A., Ishii, M., et al (1998) Orexins and orexin receptors: a family of hypothalamic neuropeptides and G protein-coupled receptors that regulate feeding behavior. Cell 92: 57385.
  • 20
    Willie, J. T., Chemelli, R. M., Sinton, C. M., Yanagisawa, M. (2001) To eat or to sleep? Orexin in the regulation of feeding and wakefulness. Annu Rev Neurosci 24: 42958.
  • 21
    Bassetti, C., Gugger, M., Mathis, J., et al (2001) Cerebrospinal fluid levels of hypocretin (orexin) in hypersomnolent patients without cataplexy. Actas de Fisiologia 7: 205
  • 22
    Kanbayashi, T., Yano, T., Ishiguro, H., et al (2002) Hypocretin-1 (orexin-A) levels in human lumbar CSF in different age groups: infants to elderly persons. Sleep 25: 3379.
  • 23
    International Classification of Sleep Disorders (1997) International Classification of Sleep Disorders: Diagnostic and Coding Manual, Revised American Sleep Disorders Association Rochester, MN.
  • 24
    Overeem, S., Mignot, E., van Dijk, J. G., Lammers, G. J. (2001) Narcolepsy: clinical features, new pathophysiologic insights, and future perspectives. J Clin Neurophysiol 18: 78105.
  • 25
    Mignot, E., Lammers, G. J., Ripley, B., et al (2002) The role of cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin measurement in the diagnosis of narcolepsy and other hypersomnias. Arch Neurol 59: 155362.
  • 26
    Molarius, A., Seidell, J. C., Sans, S., Tuomilehto, J., Kuulasmaa, K. (2000) Educational level, relative body weight, and changes in their association over 10 years: an international perspective from the WHO MONICA Project. Am J Public Health 90: 12608.
  • 27
    Seidell, J. C. (2000) Obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes—a worldwide epidemic. Br J Nutr 83(Suppl 1): S5S8.
  • 28
    Douglas, N. J. (1998) The psychosocial aspects of narcolepsy. Neurology 50(Suppl. 1): S27S30.
  • 29
    Goswami, M. (1998) The influence of clinical symptoms on quality of life in patients with narcolepsy. Neurology 50(Suppl. 1): S31S36.
  • 30
    Lean, M. E., Han, T. S., Morrison, C. E. (1995) Waist circumference as a measure for indicating need for weight management. BMJ 311: 15861.
  • 31
    Nawaz, H., Chan, W., Abdulrahman, M., Larson, D., Katz, D. L. (2001) Self-reported weight and height: implications for obesity research. Am J Prev Med 20: 2948.
  • 32
    Palta, M., Prineas, R. J., Berman, R., Hannan, P. (1982) Comparison of self-reported and measured height and weight. Am J Epidemiol 115: 22330.
  • 33
    Seidell, J. C., Bouchard, C. (1999) Abdominal adiposity and risk of heart disease. JAMA 281: 22845.
  • 34
    Segal, K. R., Dunaif, A., Gutin, B., Albu, J., Nyman, A., Pi-Sunyer, F. X. (1987) Body composition, not body weight, is related to cardiovascular disease risk factors and sex hormone levels in men. J Clin Invest 80: 10505.
  • 35
    Rexrode, K. M., Buring, J. E., Manson, J. E. (2001) Abdominal and total adiposity and risk of coronary heart disease in men. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 25: 104756.
  • 36
    Lean, M. E., Han, T. S., Seidell, J. C. (1998) Impairment of health and quality of life in people with large waist circumference. Lancet 351: 8536.
  • 37
    Van Pelt, R. E., Evans, E. M., Schechtman, K. B., Ehsani, A. A., Kohrt, W. M. (2001) Waist circumference vs body mass index for prediction of disease risk in postmenopausal women. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 25: 11838.
  • 38
    Dobbelsteyn, C. J., Joffres, M. R., MacLean, D. R., Flowerdew, G. (2001) A comparative evaluation of waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio and body mass index as indicators of cardiovascular risk factors. The Canadian Heart Health Surveys. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 25: 65261.
  • 39
    Seidell, J. C., Visscher, T. L. (2000) Body weight and weight change and their health implications for the elderly. Eur J Clin Nutr 54(Suppl 3): S33S39.
  • 40
    Honda, Y., Doi, Y., Ninomiya, R., Ninomiya, C. (1986) Increased frequency of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus among narcoleptic patients. Sleep 9: 2549.
  • 41
    Seidell, J. C., Kahn, H. S., Williamson, D. F., Lissner, L., Valdez, R. (2001) Report from a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Workshop on use of adult anthropometry for public health and primary health care. Am J Clin Nutr 73: 1236.
  • 42
    Broughton, R., Dunham, W., Newman, J., Lutley, K., Duschesne, P., Rivers, M. (1988) Ambulatory 24 hour sleep-wake monitoring in narcolepsy-cataplexy compared to matched controls. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 70: 47381.
  • 43
    Middelkoop, H. A., Lammers, G. J., Van Hilten, B. J., Ruwhof, C., Pijl, H., Kamphuisen, H. A. (1995) Circadian distribution of motor activity and immobility in narcolepsy: assessment with continuous motor activity monitoring. Psychophysiology 32: 28691.
  • 44
    Goldstein, B. J., Goodnick, P. J. (1998) Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in the treatment of affective disorders. III. Tolerability, safety and pharmacoeconomics. J Psychopharmacol 12(Suppl. B): S55S87.
  • 45
    Pijl, H., Meinders, A. E. (1996) Bodyweight change as an adverse effect of drug treatment. Mechanisms and management. Drug Saf 14: 32942.
  • 46
    Berken, G. H., Weinstein, D. O., Stern, W. C. (1984) Weight gain. A side-effect of tricyclic antidepressants. J Affect Disord 7: 1338.
  • 47
    Yamada, H., Okumura, T., Motomura, W., Kobayashi, Y., Kohgo, Y. (2000) Inhibition of food intake by central injection of anti-orexin antibody in fasted rats. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 267: 52731.
  • 48
    Haynes, A. C., Chapman, H., Taylor, C., et al (2002) Anorectic, thermogenic and anti-obesity activity of a selective orexin-1 receptor antagonist in ob/ob mice. Regul Pept 104: 1539.
  • 49
    Lammers, G. J., Pijl, H., Iestra, J., Langius, J. A., Buunk, G., Meinders, A. E. (1996) Spontaneous food choice in narcolepsy. Sleep 19: 756.
  • 50
    Peyron, C., Charnay, Y. (2002) Hypocretin (orexin) and narcolepsy. J Sleep Res 11: 260
  • 51
    Chou, T. C., Lee, C. E., Lu, J., et al (2001) Orexin (hypocretin) neurons contain dynorphin. J Neurosci 21: RC 168: 16.