SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Flegal, K. M., Carroll, M. D., Ogeden, C. L., Johnson, C. L. (2000) Prevalence and trends in obesity among US adults, 1999–2000. JAMA 288: 17231727.
  • 2
    Flegal, K. M., Carroll, M. D., Kuczmarski, R. J., Johnson, C. L. (1998) Overweight and obesity in the United States: prevalence and trends, 1960–1994. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 22: 3947.
  • 3
    Pi-Sunyer, F. X. (2002) The obesity epidemic: pathophysiology and consequences of obesity. Obes Res 10(Suppl 2): 97S104S.
  • 4
    Bergman, R. N., Mittelman, S. D. (1998) Central role of the adipocyte in insulin resistance. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol 9: 205221.
  • 5
    Yamauchi, T., Kamon, J., Ito, Y., et al. (2003) Cloning of adiponectin receptors that mediate antidiabetic metabolic effects. Nature 423: 762769.
  • 6
    Aldhahi, W., Hamdy, O.. (2003) Adipokines, inflammation and the endothelium in diabetes. Curr Diab Rep 3: 293298.
  • 7
    Sobel, B. E. (1999) Coronary artery disease and fibrinolysis: from the blood to the vessel wall. Thromb Haemost 82 (Suppl 1): 813.
  • 8
    Reaven, G. M. (1993) Role of insulin resistance in human disease (syndrome X): an expanded definition. Annu Rev Med 44: 121131.
  • 9
    Ross, R. (1999) Atherosclerosis—an inflammatory disease. N Engl J Med 340: 115126.
  • 10
    Steinberg, H. O., Chaker, H., Leaming, R., Johnson, A., Brechtel, G., Baron, A. (1996) Obesity/insulin resistance is associated with endothelial dysfunction. J Clin Invest 97: 26012610.
  • 11
    Kahn, B. B., Flier, J. S. (2000) Obesity and insulin resistance. J Clin Invest 106: 473481.
  • 12
    Haffner, S. M. (2003) Pre-diabetes, insulin resistance, inflammation and CVD risk. Diabetes Res Clinc Pract 61(Suppl 1): S9S18.
  • 13
    Goran, M. I., Ball, G. D., Cruz, M. L. (2003) Obesity and risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in children and adolescents. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88: 14171427.
  • 14
    Gerich, J. E. (2003) Contributions of insulin-resistance and insulin-secretory defects to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Mayo Clin Proc 78: 411413.
  • 15
    Caballero, A. E. Diabetes in Minority Populations. Joslin Diabetes Textbook (in press).
  • 16
    Quyyumi, A. A. (1998) Endothelial function in health and disease: new insights into the genesis of cardiovascular disease. Am J Med 105: 32S39S.
  • 17
    Mano, T., Masuyama, T., Yamamoto, K., et al. (1996) Endothelial dysfunction in the early stage of atherosclerosis precedes appearance of intimal lesions assessable with intravascular ultrasound. Am Heart J 131: 231238.
  • 18
    Tooke, J. E. (1995) Microvascular function in human diabetes: a physiologic perspective. Diabetes 44: 721726.
  • 19
    Calles-Escandon, J., Cipolla, M. (2001) Diabetes and endothelial dysfunction: a clinical perspective. Endocrine Rev 22: 3652.
  • 20
    Celermajer, D. S., Sorensen, K. E., Gooch, V. M., et al. (1992) Non-invasive detection of endothelial dysfunction in children and adults at risk of atherosclerosis. Lancet 340: 11111115.
  • 21
    Saouaf, R., Arora, S., Smakowski, P., Caballero, A. E., Veves, A. (1998) Reactive hyperemic response of the brachial artery: comparison of proximal and distal occlusion. Acad Radiol 5: 556560.
  • 22
    Correti, M. C., Anderson, T. J., Benjamin, E. J., et al. (2002) Guidelines for the ultrasound assessment of endothelial-dependent flow mediated vasodilation of the brachial artery. J Am Coll Cardiol 39: 257265.
  • 23
    Schachinger, V., Britten, M. B., Zeiber, A. M. (2000) Prognostic impact of coronary vasodilator dysfunction on adverse long-term outcome of coronary heart disease. Circulation 101: 18991906.
  • 24
    Williams, S. B., Cusco, J. A., Roddy, M. A., Johnstone, M. T., Creager, M. A. (1996) Impaired nitric-oxide mediated vasodilation in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. J Am Coll Cardiol 27: 567574.
  • 25
    Lim, S. C., Caballero, A. E., Smakowski, P., LoGerfo, F. W., Horton, E. S., Veves, A. (1999) Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule, vascular cell adhesion molecule, and impaired microvascular reactivity are early markers of vasculopathy in type 2 diabetic individuals without microalbuminuria. Diabetes Care 22: 18651870.
  • 26
    King, G. L., Wakasaki, H. (1999) Theoretical mechanisms by which hyperglycemia and insulin resistance could cause cardiovascular diseases in diabetes. Diabetes Care 22(Suppl 3): C31C37.
  • 27
    Arora, S., Veves, A., Caballero, A. E., Smakowski, P., LoGerfo, F. (1998) Estrogen improves endothelial function. J Vasc Surg 27: 11411147.
  • 28
    Steinberg, H. O., Paradisi, G., Cronin, J., et al. (2000) Type II diabetes abrogates sex differences in endothelial function in premenopausal women. Circulation 101: 20402046.
  • 29
    Lim, S. C., Caballero, A. E., Arora, S., et al. (1999) The effect of hormonal replacement therapy on the vascular reactivity and endothelial function of healthy individuals and individuals with type 2 diabetes. J Clin Endo Metab 84: 41594164.
  • 30
    Tounian, P., Aggoun, Y., Dubern, B., et al. (2001) Presence of increased stiffness of the common carotid artery and endothelial dysfunction in severely obese children: a prospective study. Lancet 358: 14001404.
  • 31
    Caballero, A. E., Arora, S., Saouaf, R., et al. (1999) Micro and macro-vascular reactivity is reduced in subjects at risk for type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 48: 18561862.
  • 32
    Balletshofer, B. M., Rittig, K., Enderle, M. D., et al. (2000) Endothelial dysfunction is detectable in young normotensive first-degree relatives of subjects with type 2 diabetes in association with insulin resistance. Circulation 101: 17801784.
  • 33
    Chen, N. G., Homes, M., Reaven, G. M. (1999) Relationship between insulin resistance, soluble adhesion molecules, and mononuclear cell binding in healthy volunteers. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 84: 34853489.
  • 34
    Anastasiou, E., Leakakis, J. P., Alevizaki, M., et al. (1998) Impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in women with previous gestational diabetes. Diabetes Care 21: 21112115.
  • 35
    Ferri, C., Desideri, G., Baldoncini, R., et al. (1998) Early activation of vascular endothelium in nonobese, nondiabetic essential hypertensive patients with multiple metabolic abnormalities. Diabetes 47: 660667.
  • 36
    Lundman, P., Eriksson, M. J., Silveira, A., et al. (2003) Relation of hypertriglyceridemia to plasma concentrations of biochemical markers of inflammation and endothelial activation (C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, soluble adhesion molecules, von Willebrand factor, and endothelin-1). Am J Cardiol 91: 11281131.
  • 37
    Paradisi, G., Steinberg, H. O., Hempfling, A., et al. (2001) Polycystic ovary syndrome is associated with endothelial dysfunction. Circulation 103: 14101415.
  • 38
    Griffin, M. E., Marcucci, M. J., Cline, S. W., et al. (1999) Free fatty acid-induced insulin resistance is associated with activation of protein kinase C theta and alterations in the insulin signaling cascade. Diabetes 48: 12701274.
  • 39
    Hotamisligil, G. S. (1999) The role of TNF-alpha and TNF receptors in obesity and insulin resistance. J Intern Med 245: 621625.
  • 40
    Kim, Y. B., Uotani, S., Perroz, D. D., Flier, J. S., Kahn, B. B. (2000) In vivo administration of leptin activates signal transduction directly in insulin sensitive tissues: overlapping but distinct pathways from insulin. Endocrinology 141: 23282339.
  • 41
    Shimabukuro, M., Koyama, K., Chen, G., et al. (1997) Direct antidiabetic effects of leptin through triglyceride depletion of tissues. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94: 46374641.
  • 42
    Steppan, C. M., Bailey, S. T., Bhat, S., et al. (2001) The hormone resistin links obesity to diabetes. Nature 409: 307312.
  • 43
    Nagaev, I., Smith, U. (2001) Insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are not related to resistin expression in human fat cells or skeletal muscle. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 285: 561564.
  • 44
    Yamauchi, T., Kamon, J., Waki, H., et al. (2001) The fat-derived hormone adiponectin reverses insulin resistance associated with both lipoatrophy and obesity. Nat Med 7: 941946.
  • 45
    Steinberg, H. O., Baron, A. D. (2002) Vascular function, insulin resistance and fatty acids. Diabetologia 45: 623634.
  • 46
    Winkler, G., Lakatos, P., Salamon, F., et al. (1999) Elevated serum TNF-alpha level as a link between endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance in normotensive obese patients. Diabet Med 16: 207211.
  • 47
    Lembo, G., Vecchione, C., Fratta, L., et al. (2000) Leptin induces direct vasodilation through distinct endothelial mechanisms. Diabetes 49: 293297.
  • 48
    Yudkin, J. S., Kumari, M., Humphries, S. E., Mohamed-Ali, V. (2002) Inflammation, obesity, stress and coronary heart disease: is interleukin-6 the link? Atherosclerosis 148: 209214.
  • 49
    Yudkin, S. J., Stehouwer, C. D., Emeis, J. J., Coppack, S. W. (1999) C-reactive protein in healthy subjects: associations with obesity, insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction: a potential role for cytokines originating from adipose tissue? Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 19: 972978.
  • 50
    Libby, P., Ridker, P. M., Maseri, A. (2002) Inflammation and atherosclerosis. Circulation 105: 11351143.
  • 51
    Depres, J. P., Lamarche, M., Mauriege, P., et al. (1996) Hyperinsulinemia as an independent risk factor for ischemic heart disease. N Engl J Med 334: 952957.
  • 52
    Howard, G., O'Leary, D. H., Zaccaro, D., et al. (1996) Insulin sensitivity and atherosclerosis. Circulation 93: 18091817.
  • 53
    Kuboki, K., Jiang, Z. Y., Takahara, N., et al. (2000) Regulation of endothelial constitutive nitric oxide synthase gene expression in endothelial cells in vivo: a specific vascular action of insulin. Circulation 101: 676681.
  • 54
    Montagnani, M., Quon, M. J. (2000) Insulin action in vascular endothelium: potential mechanisms linking insulin resistance with hypertension. Diabetes Obes Metab 2: 285292.
  • 55
    Cusi, K., Maezono, K., Osman, A., et al. (2000) Insulin resistance differentially affects the PI-3-kinase and MAP kinase mediated signaling in human muscle. J Clin Invest 105: 311320.
  • 56
    Hsueh, W. A., Law, R. E. (1999) Insulin signaling in the arterial wall. Am J Cardiol 84: 21J24J.
  • 57
    Jiang, Z. Y., Lin, Y. W., Clemont, A., et al. (1999) Characterization of selective resistance to insulin signaling in the vasculature of obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats. J Clin Invest 104: 447457.
  • 58
    Arcaro, G., Cretti, A., Balzano, S., et al. (2002) Insulin causes endothelial dysfunction in humans: sites and mechanisms. Circulation 105: 576582.
  • 59
    Cai, H., Harrison, D. G. (2000) Endothelial dysfunction in cardiovascular diseases. The role of oxidant stress. Circ Res 87: 840844.
  • 60
    Folli, F., Saad, M. J., Velloso, L., et al. (1999) Crosstalk between insulin and angiotensin II signaling systems. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 107: 133139.
  • 61
    Piatti, P., Monti, L. D., Galli, L., et al. (2000) Relationship between endothelin-1 concentrations and metabolic alterations typical of the insulin resistance syndrome. Metabolism 49: 748752.
  • 62
    Miyamoto, Y., Saito, Y., Kajiyama, N., et al. (1998) Endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene is positively associated with essential hypertension. Hypertension 32: 38.
  • 63
    Pinkney, J. H., Stehower, C. D., Coppack, S. W., Judkin, J. S. (1997) Endothelial dysfunction: cause of the insulin resistance syndrome. Diabetes 46: S9S13.
  • 64
    Utriainen, T., Makimattila, S., Virkamaki, A., Bergholm, R., Yki-Jarvinen, H. (1996) Dissociation between insulin sensitivity of glucose uptake and endothelial function in normal subjects. Diabetologia 39: 14771482.
  • 65
    Natali, A., Taddei, S., Quinones, A., et al. (1997) Insulin sensitivity, vascular reactivity, and clamp-induced vasodilation in essential hypertension. Circulation 96: 849855.
  • 66
    Dandona, P., Weinstock, R., Thusu, K., Abdel-Rahman, E., Aljada, A., Wadden, T. (1998) Tumor necrosis factor-alpha in sera of obese patients: fall with weight loss. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83: 29072910.
  • 67
    Ziccardi, P., Nappo, F., Giugliano, C., et al. (2002) Reduction of inflammatory cytokine concentrations and improvement of endothelial function in obese women after weight loss over one year. Circulation 105: 804809.
  • 68
    Balkestein, E. J., van Aggel-Leijssen, D. P., van Baak, M. A., Struijker-Boudier, H. A., Van Bortel, L. M. (1999) The effect of weight loss with or without exercise training on large artery compliance in healthy obese men. J Hypertens 17: 18311835.
  • 69
    Sciacqua, Q., Candigliota, M., Ceravolo, R., et al. (2003) Weight loss in combination with physical activity improves endothelial dysfunction in human obesity. Diabetes Care 26: 16731678.
  • 70
    Hamdy, O., Ledbury, S., Mullooly, C., et al. (2003) Lifestyle modification improves endothelial function in obese subjects with the insulin resistance syndrome. Diabetes Care 26: 21192125.
  • 71
    Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. (2002) Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle modification or metformin. N Engl J Med 346: 393403.
  • 72
    Kahn, C. R., Chen, L., Cohen, S. E. (2000) Unraveling the mechanism of action of thiazolidinediones. J Clin Invest 106: 13051307.
  • 73
    Law, R. E., Goetz, S., Xi, X. P., et al. (2000) Expression and function of PPAR-γ in rat and human vascular smooth muscle cells. Circulation 101: 13111318.
  • 74
    Marx, N., Schonbeck, U., Lazar, M. A., Libby, P., Plutzky, J. (1998) Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma activators inhibit gene expression and migration in human vascular smooth muscle cells. Circ Res 83: 10971103.
  • 75
    Hsueh, W. A., Jackson, S., Law, R. E. (2001) Control of vascular cell proliferation and migration by PPAR-γ. A new approach to the macrovascular complications of diabetes. Diabetes Care 24: 392397.
  • 76
    Parulkar, A. A., Pendergrass, M. L., Granda-Ayala, R., Lee, T. R., Fonseca, V. A. (2001) Nonhypoglycemic effects of thiazolidinediones. Ann Intern Med 134: 6171.
  • 77
    Ghanim, H., Garg, R., Aljada, A., et al. (2001) Suppression of nuclear factor-kB by troglitazone: evidence for an anti-inflamamatory effect and potential antiatherosclerotic effect in the obese. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86: 13061312.
  • 78
    Caballero, A. E., Saouaf, R., Lim, S. C., et al. (2003) The effects of troglitazone on the endothelial function of the micro-and macrocirculation in patients with early and late type 2 diabetes. Metabolism 52: 173180.
  • 79
    Koshiyama, H., Shimono, D., Kuwamura, N., Minamikawa, J., Nakamura, Y. (2001) Inhibitory effect of pioglitazone on carotid arterial wall thickness in type 2 diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86: 34523456.
  • 80
    Ishibashi, M., Egashira, K., Hiasa, K., et al. (2002) Anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic effects of pioglitazone. Hypertension 40: 687693.
  • 81
    Haffner, S. M., Greenberg, A. S., Weston, W. M., Chen, H., Williams, K., Freed, M. I. (2002) Effect of rosiglitazone treatment on nontraditional markers of cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Circulation 106: 679684.
  • 82
    Martens, F. M., Visseren, F. L., Lemay, J., de Koning, E. J., Rabelink, T. J. (2002) Metabolic and additional vascular effects of thiazolidinediones. Drugs 62: 14631480.
  • 83
    Nakamura, T., Ushiyama, C., Osada, S., Hara, M., Shimada, N., Koide, H. (2001) Pioglitazone reduces urinary podocyte excretion in type 2 diabetes patients with microalbuminuria. Metabolism 50: 11931196.
  • 84
    Bakris, G., Viberti, G., Weston, W. M., Heise, M., Porter, L. E., Freed, M. I. (2003) Rosiglitazone reduces urinary albumin excretion in type II diabetes. J Hum Hypertens 17: 712.
  • 85
    UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group (1998) Effect of intensive blood-glucose control with metformin on complications in overweight patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 34). Lancet 352: 854865.
  • 86
    Johnson, J. A., Majumdar, S. R., Simpson, S. H., Toth, E. L. (2002) Decreased mortality associated with the use of metformin compared with sulfonylurea monotherapy in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 25: 22442248.
  • 87
    Grant, P. (1996) The effects of high- and medium-dose metformin therapy on cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 19: 6466.
  • 88
    Mather, K. J., Verma, S., Anderson, T. J. (2001) Improved endothelial function with metformin in type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Am Coll Cardiol 37: 13441350.
  • 89
    Charles, M. A., Morange, P., Eschwege, E., Andre, P., Vague, P., Juhan-Vague, I. (1998) Effect of weight change and metformin on fibrinolysis and the von Willebrand factor in obese nondiabetic subjects. The BIGPRO1 Study. Diabetes Care 21: 19671972.
  • 90
    Caballero, A. E., Delgado, A., Naranjo, A., et al. (2003) Metformin improves markers of endothelial activation but not markers of inflammation in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Diabetes 52(Suppl 1): A20