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Keywords:

  • hyperlipidemia;
  • type 2 diabetes;
  • peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha;
  • peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma

Abstract

Objective: Preclinical evaluation of DRF 2655, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) and PPARγ agonist, as a body-weight lowering, hypolipidemic and euglycemic agent.

Research Methods and Procedures: DRF 2655 was studied in different genetic, normal, and hyperlipidemic animal models. HEK 293 cells were used to conduct the reporter-based transactivation of PPARα and PPARγ. To understand the biochemical mechanism of lipid-, body-weight-, and glucose-lowering effects, activities of key β-oxidation and lipid catabolism enzymes and gluconeogenic enzymes were studied in db/db mice treated with DRF 2655. 3T3L1 cells were used for adipogenesis study, and HepG2 cells were used to study the effect of DRF 2655 on total cholesterol and triglyceride synthesis using [14C]acetate and [3H]glycerol.

Results: DRF 2655 showed concentration-dependent transactivation of PPARα and PPARγ. In the 3T3L1 cell-differentiation study, DRF 2655 and rosiglitazone showed 369% and 471% increases, respectively, in triglyceride accumulation. DRF 2655 showed body-weight lowering and euglycemic and hypolipidemic effects in various animal models. db/db mice treated with DRF 2655 showed 5- and 3.6-fold inhibition in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose 6-phosphatase activity and 651% and 77% increases in the β-oxidation enzymes carnitine palmitoyltransferase and carnitine acetyltransferase, respectively. HepG2 cells treated with DRF 2655 showed significant reduction in lipid synthesis.

Discussion: DRF 2655 showed excellent euglycemic and hypolipidemic activities in different animal models. An exciting finding is its body-weight lowering effect in these models, which might be mediated by the induction of target enzymes involved in hepatic lipid catabolism through PPARα activation.