• 1
    Ghali, J. K., Liao, Y., Simmons, B., Castaner, A., Cao, G., Cooper, R. S. (1992) The prognostic role of left ventricular hypertrophy in patients with and without coronary artery disease. Ann Intern Med. 117: 881883.
  • 2
    Benjamin, E. J., Levy, D. (1999) Why is left ventricular hypertrophy so predictive of morbidity and mortality ? Am J Med Sci. 317: 168175.
  • 3
    Levy, D., Garrison, R. J., Savage, D. D., et al (1990) Prognostic implications of echocardiographically determined left ventricular mass in the Framingham Heart Study. N Engl J Med. 322: 15611566.
  • 4
    Avignon, A., du Cailar, G., Ribstein, J., et al (1997) Determinants of the left ventricular mass in obese subjects. Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss. 90: 10431046.
  • 5
    Hirayama, H., Sugano, M., Abe, N., Yonemoch, H., Makino, N. (2001) Troglitazone, an antidiabetic drug, improves left ventricular mass and diastolic function in normotensive diabetic patients. Int J Cardiol. 77: 7579.
  • 6
    McNulty, P. H., Louard, R., Deckelbaum, L. I., et al (1995) Hyperinsulinemia inhibits myocardial protein degradation in patients with cardiovascular disease and insulin resistance. Circulation. 92: 21512156.
  • 7
    Sasson, Z., Rasooly, Y., Bhesania, T., Rasooly, I. (1993) Insulin resistance is an important determinant of left ventricular mass in the obese. Circulation. 88: 14311436.
  • 8
    Vetta, F., Cicconetti, P., Ronzoni, S., et al (1998) Hyperinsulinemia, regional adipose tissue distribution and left ventricular mass in normotensive, elderly, obese subjects. Eur Heart J. 19: 326331.
  • 9
    Iacobellis, G., Ribaudo, M. C., Leto, G., et al (2002) Influence of excess fat on cardiac morphology and function: study in uncomplicated obesity. Obes Res. 10: 767773.
  • 10
    Fulcher, G. R., Farrer, M., Walker, M., Rodham, D., Clayton, B., Alberti, KGM. (1991) A comparison of measurements of lean body mass derived by bioelectrical impedance, skinfold thickness and total body potassium. A study in obese and non-obese normal subjects. Scand J Lab Invest. 51: 245253.
  • 11
    DeFronzo, R. A., Tobin, J. D., Andres, R. (1979) Glucose clamp technique: a method for quantifying insulin secretion and resistance. Am J Physiol. 237: E214E222.
  • 12
    Schiller, N. B., Shah, P. M., Crawford, M., et al (1989) Recommendations for quantitation of the left ventricle by two-dimensional echocardiography. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2: 358367.
  • 13
    Sahn, D., DeMaria, A., Kisslo, J., Weyman, A. (1978) The Comittee on M-mode standardization of the American Society of Echocardiography: recommendations regarding quantitation in M-mode echocardiography: results of a survey of echocardiography measurements. Circulation. 58: 10721083.
  • 14
    Deverueux, R. B., Alonso, D. R., Lutas, E. M., et al (1986) Echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular hypertrophy: comparison to necropsy findings. Am J Cardiol. 57: 450458.
  • 15
    Urbina, E. M., Gidding, S. S., Bao, W., Pickoff, A. S., Berdusis, K., Berenson, G. S. (1995) Effect of body size, ponderosity and blood pressure on left ventricular growth in children and young adults in the Bogalusa Heart Study. Circulation. 91: 24002406.
  • 16
    de Simone, G., Daniels, S. R., Devereux, R. B., et al (1992) Left ventricular mass and body size in normotensive children and adults: assessment of allometric relations and impact of overweight. J Am Coll Cardiol. 20: 12511260.
  • 17
    de Simone, G., Devereux, R. B., Daniels, S. R., Koren, M. J., Meyer, R. A., Laragh, J. H. (1995) Effect of growth on variability of left ventricular mass: assessment of allometric signals in adults and children and their capacity to predict cardiovascular risk. J Am Coll Cardiol. 25: 10561062.
  • 18
    Ganau, A., Devereux, R. B., Roman, M. J., et al (1992) Patterns of left ventricular hypertrophy and geometric remodeling in essential hypertension. J Am Coll Cardiol. 19: 15501558.
  • 19
    Daniels, S. R., Kimball, T. R., Morrison, J. A., Khoury, P., Witt, S., Meyer, R. A. (1995) Effect of lean body mass, fat mass, blood pressure, and sexual maturation on left ventricular mass in children and adolescents: statistical, biological, and clinical significance. Circulation. 92: 32493254.
  • 20
    Krumholz, H. M., Larson, M., Levy, D. (1995) Prognosis of left ventricular geometric patterns in the Framingham Heart Study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 25: 879884.
  • 21
    de Simone, G., Devereux, R. B., Roman, M. J., et al (1994) Assessment of left ventricular function by the midwall fractional shortening/end-systolic stress relation in human hypertension. J Am Coll Cardiol. 23: 14441451.
  • 22
    Shimizu, G., Zile, M. R., Blaustein, A. S., Gaasch, W. H. (1985) Left ventricular chamber filling and midwall fiber lengthening in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy: overestimation of fiber velocities by conventional midwall measurements. Circulation. 71: 266272.
  • 23
    Reicheck, N., Wilson, J., Sutton, M. S., Plappert, T. A., Goldberg, S., Hirshfeld, J. W. (1982) Noninvasive determination of left ventricular end-systolic stress: validation of the method and initial application. Circulation. 65: 99108.
  • 24
    Paolisso, G., Galderissi, M., Tagliamonte, M. R., et al (1997) Myocardial wall thickness and left ventricular geometry in hypertensives. Relationship with insulin. Am J Hypertens. 10: 12501256.
  • 25
    Ohya, Y., Abe, I., Fuji, K., et al (1996) Hyperinsulinemia and left ventricular geometry in a work-site population in Japan. Hypertension. 27: 729734.
  • 26
    Kamide, K., Nagano, M., Nakano, N., et al (1996) Insulin resistance and cardiovascular complications in patients with essential hypertension. Am J Hypertens. 9: 11651171.
  • 27
    Lind, L., Andersson, P. E., Ahrén, B., et al (1995) Left ventricular hypertrophy in hypertension is associated with the insulin resistance syndrome. J Hypertens. 13: 433438.
  • 28
    Verdecchia, P., Reboldi, G., Schillaci, G., et al (1999) Circulating insulin and growth factor-I are independent determinants of left ventricular mass and geometry in essential hypertension. Circulation. 100: 18021807.
  • 29
    Paolisso, G., Galzerano, D., Gambardella, A., et al (1995) Left ventricular hypertrophy is associated with a stronger impairment of non-oxidative glucose metabolism in hypertensive patients. Eur J Clin Invest. 25: 529533.
  • 30
    Sundstrom, J., Lind, L., Valind, S., et al (2001) Myocardial insulin-mediated glucose uptake and left ventricular geometry. Blood Pressure. 10: 2732.
  • 31
    Rabkin, S. W., Dawson, K. G., Bhaumick, B., et al (1996) Serum insulin, IGF-1, IGF-II and growth hormone, and left ventricular mass in noninsulin-dependent mellitus. Can J Cardiol. 12: 264270.
  • 32
    Jelenc, M., Zemva, A., Marn-Pernat, A., et al (1998) Are insulin metabolism and night-time blood pressure related to left ventricular hypertrophy? Int J Cardiol. 28: 261265.
  • 33
    Costa, C. H., Batista, M. C., Moises, V. A., et al (1995) Serum insulin, 24-hour blood pressure profile, and left ventricular mass in nonobese hypertensive patients. Hypertension. 26: 10851088.
  • 34
    Kupari, M., Koshinen, P., Virolainen, J. (1994) Correlates of left ventricular mass in a population sample aged 36 to 37 years. Circulation. 89: 10411050.
  • 35
    Galvan, A. Q., Galetta, F., Natali, A., et al (2000) Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia: no independent relation to left ventricular mass in humans. Circulation. 102: 22332238.
  • 36
    Watanabe, K., Sekiya, M., Tsuruoka, T., Funada, J., Kameoka, H. (1999) Effect of insulin resistance on left ventricular hypertrophy and dysfunction in essential hypertension. J Hypertens. 17: 11531160.
  • 37
    Malmqvist, K., Isaksson, H., Ostergren, J., Kahan, T. (2001) Left ventricular mass is not related to insulin sensitivity in never-treated primary hypertension. J Hypertens. 19: 311317.
  • 38
    Sundström, J., Lind, L., Nyström, N., et al (2000) Left ventricular concentric remodeling rather than left ventricular hypertrophy is related to the insulin resistance syndrome in elderly men. Circulation. 101: 25952600.
  • 39
    Tanaka, N., Ryoke, T., Hongo, M., et al (1998) Effects of growth hormone and IGF-I on cardiac hypertrophy and gene expression in mice. Am J Physiol. 275: H393H399.
  • 40
    Delaughter, M. C., Taffet, G. E., Fiorotto, M. L., Entman, M. L., Schwartz, R. J. (1999) Local insulin-like growth factor I expression induces physiologic, then pathologic, cardiac hypertrophy in transgenic mice. FASEB J. 13: 19231929.
  • 41
    DeFronzo, R. A., Cooke, C. R., Andres, R., Faloona, G. R., Davis, P. J. (1975) The effect of insulin on renal handling of sodium, potassium, calcium, and phosphate in man. J Clin Invest. 55: 845855.
  • 42
    Kamide, K., Rakugi, H., Higaki, J., et al (2002) The renin-angiotensin and adrenergic nervous system in cardiac hypertrophy in fructose-fed rats. Am J Hypertens. 15: 6671.
  • 43
    Greenwood, J. P., Scott, E. M., Stoker, J. B., Mary, D. A. (2001) Hypertensive left ventricular hypertrophy: relation to peripheral sympathetic drive. J Am Coll Cardiol. 15(38): 17111717.
  • 44
    Paolisso, G., Manzella, D., Montano, N., Gambardella, A., Varricchio, M. (2000) Plasma leptin concentrations and cardiac autonomic nervous system in healthy subjects with different body weights. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 85: 18101814.
  • 45
    Paolisso, G., Tagliamonte, M. R., Galderisi, M., et al (2001) Plasma leptin concentration, insulin sensitivity, and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure and left ventricular geometry. Am J Hypertens. 14: 114120.