Objectives: The hormones adiponectin and resistin have been associated with insulin resistance. This paper analyzed the potential relationship between adiponectin and resistin and insulin resistance-related phenotypes in baboons.

Research Methods and Procedures: One hundred eight adult baboons (84 female and 24 male) were studied. Weight was measured, and a blood sample was collected under fasting conditions for plasma and monocyte isolation. Fasting glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and adiponectin levels in plasma were measured by standard methods. Insulin resistance was calculated by the homeostasis model assessment index. Resistin mRNA abundance in monocytes was determined by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Data were clustered by weight tertiles for statistical analysis.

Results: As observed in humans, the insulin resistance-related phenotypes were related to weight, plasma levels of adiponectin, and C-peptide. No significant relationship between resistin circulating levels or expression in monocytes and insulin resistance-related phenotypes was found in baboons.

Discussion: These findings suggest that resistin is not associated with insulin resistance. However, previous observations of relationships among weight, adiponectin, and insulin resistance are confirmed.