• 1
    Mokdad, A. H., Bowman, B. A., Ford, E. S., Vinicor, F., Marks, J. S., Koplan, J. P. (2001) The continuing epidemics of obesity and diabetes in the United States. JAMA. 286: 11951200.
  • 2
    Launer, L. J., Harris, T., Rumpel, C., Madans, J. (1994) Body mass index, weight change, and risk of mobility disability in middle-aged and older women: the epidemiologic follow-up study of NHANES I. JAMA. 271: 10931098.
  • 3
    Himes, C. L. (2000) Obesity, disease, and functional limitation in later life. Demography. 37: 7382.
  • 4
    Coakley, E. H., Kawachi, I., Manson, J. E., Speizer, F. E., Willet, W. C., Colditz, G. A. (1998) Lower levels of physical functioning are associated with higher body weight among middle-aged and older women. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 22: 958965.
  • 5
    Davison, K. K., Ford, E. S., Cogswell, M. E., Dietz, W. H. (2002) Percentage of body fat and body mass index are associated with mobility limitations in people aged 70 and older from NHANES III. J Am Geriatr Soc. 50: 18021809.
  • 6
    Zizza, C. A., Herring, A., Stevens, J., Popkin, B. M. (2002) Obesity affects nursing-care facility admission among whites but not blacks. Obes Res. 10: 816823.
  • 7
    Beaufrere, B., Morio, B. (2000) Fat and protein redistribution with aging: metabolic considerations. Eur J Clin Nutr. 54(Suppl 3): S48S53.
  • 8
    Dutta, C., Hadley, E. C. (1995) The significance of sarcopenia in old age. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 50: 14.
  • 9
    Baumgartner, R. N., Koehler, K. M., Gallagher, D., et al (1998) Epidemiology of sarcopenia among the elderly in New Mexico. Am J Epidemiol. 147: 755763.
  • 10
    Visser, M., Langlois, J., Guralnik, J. M., et al (1998) High body fatness, but not low fat-free mass, predicts disability in older men and women: the Cardiovascular Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 68: 584590.
  • 11
    Visser, M., Harris, T. B., Langlois, J., et al (1998) Body fat and skeletal muscle mass in relation to physical disability in very old men and women of the Framingham Heart Study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 53: M214M221.
  • 12
    Sternfeld, B., Ngo, L., Satariano, W. A., Tager, I. B. (2002) Associations of body composition with physical performance and self- reported functional limitation in elderly men and women. Am J Epidemiol. 156: 110121.
  • 13
    Metter, E. J., Lynch, N., Conwit, R., Lindle, R., Tobin, J., Hurley, B. (1999) Muscle quality and age: cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 54: B207B218.
  • 14
    Newman, A. B., Haggerty, C. L., Goodpaster, B., et al (2003) Strength and muscle quality in a well-functioning cohort of older adults: the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 51: 323330.
  • 15
    Mingrone, G., Marino, S., DeGaetano, A., et al (2001) Different limit to the body's ability of increasing fat-free mass. Metabolism. 50: 10041007.
  • 16
    Heymsfield, S. B., Smith, R., Aulet, M., et al (1990) Appendicular skeletal muscle mass: measurement by dual-photon absorptiometry. Am J Clin Nutr. 52: 214218.
  • 17
    Gallagher, D., Visser, M., De Meersman, R. E., et al (1997) Appendicular skeletal muscle mass: effects of age, gender, and ethnicity. J Appl Physiol. 83: 229239.
  • 18
    Wang, Z. M., Visser, M., Ma, R., et al (1996) Skeletal muscle mass: evaluation of neutron activation and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry methods. J Appl Physiol. 80: 824831.
  • 19
    Villareal, D. T., Holloszy, J. O., Kohrt, W. M. (2000) Effects of DHEA replacement on bone mineral density and body composition in elderly women and men. Clin Endocrinol. 53: 561568.
  • 20
    Reuben, D. B., Siu, A. L. (1990) An objective measure of physical function of elderly outpatients: the Physical Performance Test. J Am Geriatr Soc. 38: 11051112.
  • 21
    Reuben, D. B., Siu, A. L., Kimpau, S. (1992) The predictive validity of self-report and performance-based measures of function and health. J Gerontol. 47: M106M110.
  • 22
    Guralnik, J. M., Simonsick, E. M., Ferrucci, L., et al (1994) A short physical performance battery assessing lower extremity function: association with self-reported disability and prediction of mortality and nursing home admission. J Gerontol. 49: M85M94.
  • 23
    Villareal, D. T., Binder, E. F., Williams, D. B., Schechtman, K. B., Yarasheski, K. E., Kohrt, W. M. (2001) Bone mineral density response to estrogen replacement in frail elderly women: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 286: 815820.
  • 24
    Villareal, D. T., Binder, E. F., Yarasheski, K. E., et al (2003) Effects of exercise training added to ongoing hormone replacement therapy on bone mineral density in frail elderly women. J Am Geriatr Soc. 51: 985990.
  • 25
    Villareal, D. T., Schectman, K. B., Yarasheski, K. E., Sinacore, D. R., Binder, E. F. (2004) Effects of exercise training on bone mineral density in frail older women and men: a randomized controlled trial. Age Aging. 33: 309312.
  • 26
    Binder, E. F., Schechtman, K. B., Ehsani, A. A., et al (2002) Effects of exercise training on frailty in community-dwelling older adults: results of a randomized, controlled trial. J Am Geriatr Soc. 50: 19211928.
  • 27
    Brown, M., Sinacore, D. R., Binder, E. F., Kohrt, W. M. (2000) Physical and performance measures for the identification of mild to moderate frailty. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 55: M350M355.
  • 28
    Host, H., Sinacore, D., Brown, M., Holloszy, J. (1996) Reliability of the modified physical performance test in older adults. Phys Ther. 76: S23S24.
  • 29
    Kohrt, W. M., Malley, M. T., Coggan, A. R., et al (1991) Effects of gender, age, and fitness level on response of VO2max to training in 60-71 yr olds. J Appl Physiol. 71: 20042011.
  • 30
    Fillenbaum, G. G., Smyer, M. A. (1981) The development, validity, and reliability of the OARS multidimensional functional assessment questionnaire. J Gerontol. 36: 428434.
  • 31
    Jette, A. M., Cleary, P. D. (1987) Functional disability assessment. Phys Ther. 67: 18541859.
  • 32
    Brown, M., Holloszy, J. O. (1991) Effects of a low intensity exercise program on selected physical performance characteristics of 60- to 71-year olds. Aging. 3: 129139.
  • 33
    McHorney, C. A., Ware, J. E., Jr., Raczek, A. E. (1993) The MOS 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36): II. Psychometric and clinical tests of validity in measuring physical and mental health constructs. Med Care. 31: 247263.
  • 34
    Overend, T. J., Cunningham, D. A., Kramer, J. F., Lefcoe, M. S., Paterson, D. H. (1992) Knee extensor and knee flexor strength: cross-sectional area ratios in young and elderly men. J Gerontol. 47: M204M210.
  • 35
    Kraemer, W. J., Volek, J. S., Clark, K. L., et al (1999) Influence of exercise training on physiological and performance changes with weight loss in men. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 31: 13201329.
  • 36
    Goodpaster, B. H., Carlson, C. L., Visser, M., et al (2001) Attenuation of skeletal muscle and strength in the elderly: the Health ABC Study. J Appl Physiol. 90: 21572165.
  • 37
    Coggan, A. R., Abduljalil, A. M., Swanson, S. C., et al (1993) Muscle metabolism during exercise in young and older untrained and endurance-trained men. J Appl Physiol. 75: 21252133.
  • 38
    Proctor, D. N., Sinning, W. E., Walro, J. M., Sieck, G. C., Lemon, P. W. (1995) Oxidative capacity of human muscle fiber types: effects of age and training status. J Appl Physiol. 78: 20332038.
  • 39
    Kolotkin, R. L., Meter, K., Williams, G. R. (2001) Quality of life and obesity. Obes Rev. 2: 219229.
  • 40
    Cummings, S. R., Black, D. M., Nevitt, M. C., et al (1993) Bone density at various sites for prediction of hip fractures: the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. Lancet. 341: 7275.
  • 41
    Jensen, L. B., Kollerup, G., Quaade, F., Sorensen, O. H. (2001) Bone minerals changes in obese women during a moderate weight loss with and without calcium supplementation. J Bone Miner Res.. 16: 141147.
  • 42
    Ross, R., Pedwell, H., Rissanen, J. (1995) Response of total and regional lean tissue and skeletal muscle to a program of energy restriction and resistance exercise. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 19: 781787.
  • 43
    Jensen, L. B., Quaade, F., Sorensen, O. H. (1994) Bone loss accompanying voluntary weight loss in obese humans. J Bone Miner Res. 9: 459463.