• 1
    Okosun, I. S., Liao, Y., Rotimi, C. N., Prewitt, T. E., Cooper, RS. (2000) Abdominal adiposity and clustering of multiple metabolic syndrome in white, black and Hispanic Americans. Ann Epidemiol. 10: 263270.
  • 2
    Karter, A. J., Mayer-Davis, E. J., Selby, J. V., et al (1996) Insulin sensitivity and abdominal obesity in African-American, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white men and women: the Insulin Resistance and Atherosclerosis Study Diabetes. Diabetes. 45: 15471555.
  • 3
    Hayashi, T., Boyko, E. J., Leonetti, D. L., et al (2003) Visceral adiposity and the risk of impaired glucose tolerance: a prospective study among Japanese Americans. Diabetes Care. 26: 650655.
  • 4
    Ross, R., Fortier, L., Hudson, R. (1996) Separate associations between visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution, insulin and glucose levels in obese women. Diabetes Care. 19: 14041411.
  • 5
    Lovejoy, J. C., de la Bretonne, J. A., Klemperer, M., Tulley, R. (1996) Abdominal fat distribution and metabolic risk factors: effects of race. Metabolism. 45: 11191124.
  • 6
    Abate, N., Garg, A., Peshock, R. M., Stray-Gundersen, J., Grundy, SM. (1995) Relationships of generalized and regional adiposity to insulin sensitivity in men. J Clin Invest. 96: 8898.
  • 7
    Goodpaster, B. H., Thaete, F. L., Simoneau, J. A., Kelley, DE. (1997) Subcutaneous abdominal fat and thigh muscle composition predict insulin sensitivity independently of visceral fat. Diabetes. 46: 15791585.
  • 8
    Björntorp, P. (1990) “Portal” adipose tissue as a generator of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Arteriosclerosis. 10: 493496.
  • 9
    Wajchenberg, B. L., Giannella-Neto, D., Da Silva, M. E., Santos, RF. (2002) Depot-specific hormonal characteristics of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue and their relation to the metabolic syndrome. Horm Metab Res. 34: 616621.
  • 10
    Jensen, MD. (2002) Adipose tissue and fatty acid metabolism in humans. J R Soc Med. 95(suppl): 37. 42.
  • 11
    Conway, J. M., Yanovski, S. Z., Avila, N. A., Hubbard, VS. (1995) Visceral adipose tissue differences in black and white women. Am J Clin Nutr. 61: 765771.
  • 12
    Hill, J. O., Sidney, S., Lewis, C. E., Tolan, K., Scherzinger, A. L., Stamm, ER. (1999) Racial differences in amounts of visceral adipose tissue in young adults: the CARDIA (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults) study. Am J Clin Nutr. 69: 381387.
  • 13
    Perry, A. C., Applegate, E. B., Jackson, M. L., et al (2000) Racial differences in visceral adipose tissue but not anthropometric markers of health-related variables. J Appl Physiol. 89: 636643.
  • 14
    Haffner, S. M., D'Agostino, R., Saad, M. F., et al (1996) Increased insulin resistance and insulin secretion in nondiabetic African-Americans and Hispanics compared with non-Hispanic whites: the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study. Diabetes. 45: 742748.
  • 15
    Wagenknecht, L. E., Langefeld, C. D., Scherzinger, A. L., et al (2003) Insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, and abdominal fat: the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS) Family Study. Diabetes. 52: 24902496.
  • 16
    Ryan, A. S., Nicklas, B. J., Berman, DM. (2002) Racial differences in insulin resistance and mid-thigh fat deposition in postmenopausal women. Obes Res. 10: 336344.
  • 17
    Kanaley, J. A., Giannopoulou, I., Tillapaugh-Fay, G., Nappi, J. S., Ploutz-Snyder, LL. (2003) Racial differences in subcutaneous and visceral fat distribution in postmenopausal black and white women. Metabolism. 52: 186191.
  • 18
    Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. (2001) Executive Summary of the Third Report of The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, And Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol In Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). JAMA. 285: 24862497.
  • 19
    Howard, B. V., Mayer-Davis, E. J., Goff, D., et al (1998) Relationships between insulin resistance and lipoproteins in nondiabetic African Americans, Hispanics, and non-Hispanic whites: the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study. Metabolism. 47: 11741179.
  • 20
    Garvey, W. T., Kwon, S., Zheng, D., et al (2003) Effects of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes on lipoprotein subclass particle size and concentration determined by nuclear magnetic resonance. Diabetes. 52: 453462.
  • 21
    Pacini, G., Bergman, RN. (1986) MINMOD: a computer program to calculate insulin sensitivity and pancreatic responsivity from the frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test. Comput Methods Programs Biomed. 23: 113122.
  • 22
    Steil, G. M., Volund, A., Kahn, S. E., Bergman, RN. (1993) Reduced sample number for calculation of insulin sensitivity and glucose effectiveness from the minimal model: suitability for use in population studies. Diabetes. 42: 250256.
  • 23
    Lohman, T. G., Roche, A. F., Martorell, R. (1998) Anthropometric Standardization Reference Manual. Human Kinetics Books: Champaign, IL.
  • 24
    Sumner, A. E., Farmer, N. M., Tulloch-Reid, M. K., et al (2002) Sex differences in visceral adipose tissue volume among African Americans. Am J Clin Nutr. 76: 975979.
  • 25
    Warnick, G. R., Benderson, J., Albers, JJ. (1982) Dextran sulfate-Mg2+ precipitation procedure for quantitation of high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol. Clin Chem. 28: 13791388.
  • 26
    Otvos, J. D., Jeyarajah, E. J., Bennett, D. W., Krauss, RM. (1992) Development of a proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic method for determining plasma lipoprotein concentrations and subspecies distributions from a single, rapid measurement. Clin Chem. 38: 16321638.
  • 27
    Otvos, JD. (2002) Measurement of lipoprotein subclass profiles by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Clin Lab. 48: 171180.
  • 28
    Olkin, I. (1967) Correlation revisited. In Stanely, JC (ed). Improving Experimental Design and Statistical Analysis. Rand McNally: Chicago, IL.
  • 29
    Ross, R., Aru, J., Freeman, J., Hudson, R., Janssen, I. (2002) Abdominal adiposity and insulin resistance in obese men. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 282: E657E663.
  • 30
    Ross, R., Freeman, J., Hudson, R., Janssen, I. (2002) Abdominal obesity, muscle composition, and insulin resistance in premenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 87: 50445051.
  • 31
    Cnop, M., Landchild, M. J., Vidal, J., et al (2002) The concurrent accumulation of intra-abdominal and subcutaneous fat explains the association between insulin resistance and plasma leptin concentrations: distinct metabolic effects of two fat compartments. Diabetes. 51: 10051015.
  • 32
    Banerji, M. A., Lebowitz, J., Chaiken, R. L., Gordon, D., Kral, J. G., Lebovitz, HE. (1997) Relationship of visceral adipose tissue and glucose disposal is independent of sex in black NIDDM subjects. Am J Physiol. 273: E425E432.
  • 33
    Boyko, E. J., Leonetti, D. L., Bergstrom, R. W., Newell-Morris, L., Fujimoto, WY. (1996) Visceral adiposity, fasting plasma insulin, and lipid and lipoprotein levels in Japanese Americans. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 20: 801808.
  • 34
    DeNino, W. F., Tchernof, A., Dionne, I. J., et al (2001) Contribution of abdominal adiposity to age-related differences in insulin sensitivity and plasma lipids in healthy nonobese women. Diabetes Care. 24: 925932.
  • 35
    Marcus, M. A., Murphy, L., Pi-Sunyer, F. X., Albu, JB. (1999) Insulin sensitivity and serum triglyceride level in obese white and black women: relationship to visceral and truncal subcutaneous fat. Metabolism. 48: 194199.
  • 36
    Pouliot, M. C., Despres, J. P., Nadeau, A., et al (1992) Visceral obesity in men. Associations with glucose tolerance, plasma insulin, and lipoprotein levels. Diabetes. 41: 826834.
  • 37
    Kleinbaum, D. G., Kupper, K. L., Muller, K. E., Nizam, A. (1998) Regression Diagnostics: Applied Regression Analysis and Multivariable Methods. Duxbury Press: Pacific Grove, CA. 212280.
  • 38
    Kelley, D. E., Thaete, F. L., Troost, F., Huwe, T., Goodpaster, BH. (2000) Subdivisions of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue and insulin resistance. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 278: E941E948.