• 1
    Adami, H. O., Day, N. E., Trichopoulos, D., et al. (2001) Primary and secondary prevention in the reduction of cancer morbidity and mortality. Eur J Cancer 37: S118S127.
  • 2
    Adebamowo, C. A., Ogundiran, T. O., Adenipekun, A. A., et al. (2002) Waist-hip ratio and breast cancer risk in urbanized Nigerian women. Breast Cancer Res. 5: 1824.
  • 3
    Bergstrom, A., Pisani, P., Tenet, V., et al. (2001) Overweight as an avoidable cause of cancer in Europe. Int J Cancer 91: 421430.
  • 4
    Coreil, J. (1984) Ethnicity and cancer prevention in a tri-ethnic urban community. J Natl Med Assoc. 76: 10131019.
  • 5
    Donovan, K. A., Tucker, D. C. (2000) Knowledge about genetic risk for breast cancer and perceptions of genetic testing in a sociodemographically diverse sample. J Behav Med. 23: 1536.
  • 6
    Hughes, C., Gomez-Caminero, A., Benkendorf, J., et al. (1997) Ethnic differences in knowledge and attitudes about BRCA1 testing in women at increased risk. Patient Educ Counsel. 32: 5162.
  • 7
    Miller, A. M., Champion, V. L. (1997) Attitudes about breast cancer and mammography: racial, income, and educational differences. Women Health 26: 4163.
  • 8
    Folsom, A. R., Kaye, S. A., Princeas, R. J., et al. (1990) Increased incidence of carcinoma of the breast associated with abdominal adiposity in postmenopausal women. Am J Epidemiol. 131: 794803.
  • 9
    Huang, Z., Willett, W. C., Colditz, G. A., et al. (1999) Waist circumference, waist:hip ratio, and risk of breast cancer in the Nurses’ Health Study. Am J Epidemiol. 150: 13161324.
  • 10
    Kaaks, R., Van Noord, P. A., Den Tonkelaar, I., et al. (1998) Breast-cancer incidence in relation to height, weight, and body-fat distribution in the Dutch ‘DOM’ cohort. Int J Cancer 76: 647651.
  • 11
    Sellers, T. A., Davis, J., Cerhan, J. R., et al. (2002) Interaction of waist/hip ratio and family history on the risk of hormone receptor-defined breast cancer in a prospective study of postmenopausal women. Am J Epidemiol. 155: 225233.
  • 12
    Sonnenschein, E., Toniolo, P., Terry, M. B., et al. (1999) Body fat distribution and obesity in pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer. Int J Epidemiol. 28: 10261031.
  • 13
    Key, T. J. (2001) Glycemic index, hyperinsulinemia, and breast cancer risk. Ann Oncol. 12: 15071509.
  • 14
    Huang, Z., Hankinson, S. E., Colditz, G. A., et al. (1997) Dual effects of weight and weight gain on breast cancer risk. J Am Med Assoc. 278: 14071411.
  • 15
    Hunter, D. J., Spiegelman, D., Adami, H. O., et al. (1996) Types of dietary fat and breast cancer—a pooled analysis. N Engl J Med. 334: 356361.
  • 16
    Allison, D. B., Fontaine, K. R., Manson, J. E., et al. (1999) Annual deaths attributable to obesity in the United States. J Am Med Assoc. 282: 15301538.
  • 17
    Gutierrez-Fisac, J. L., Banegas-Banegas, J. R., Artalejo, F. R., et al. (2000) Increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity among Spanish adults, 1987–1997. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 24: 16771682.
  • 18
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. HHS report highlights benefits of physical activity of disease prevention. http:www.hhs.govnewspress2002pres20020620 (Accessed June, 20, 2000).
  • 19
    National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, and National Institutes of Health. (1998) Clinical Guidelines on the Identification, Evaluation and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults: The Evidence Reports National Institutes of Health Bethesda, MD.
  • 20
    Ries, L. A. G., Wingo, P. A., Miller, D. S., et al. (2000) The Annual Report to the Nation on the status of cancer, 1973–1997, with a special section on colorectal cancer. Cancer 88: 23982424.
  • 21
    Mokdad, A. H., Serdula, M. K., Dietz, W. H., et al. (1999) The spread of the obesity epidemic in the United States, 1991–1998. J Am Med Assoc. 282: 15191522.
  • 22
    Cui, Y., Whiteman, M. K., Langenberg, P., et al. (2002) Can obesity explain the racial difference in stage of breast cancer at diagnosis between black and white women? J Womens Health Gender Based Med. 11: 527536.
  • 23
    Kumanyika, S. K. (2002) The minority factor in the obesity epidemic. Ethnicity Dis. 12: 316319.
  • 24
    American Cancer Society. (2003) Cancer Facts and Figures for African Americans, 2003–2004 ACS Atlanta, GA.
  • 25
    American Cancer Society. (2003) Cancer Prevention and Early Detection: Facts and Figures 2003 ACS Atlanta, GA.
  • 26
    Bernstein, L., Teal, C. R., Joslyn, S., et al. (2003) Ethnicity-related variation in breast cancer risk factors. Cancer 97: 222229.
  • 27
    Pitchenik, A. E., Becker, D. M., Hilsenbeck, S. G., et al. (1987) Cancer among Haitians in Florida. Cancer 59: 184188.
  • 28
    Bach, P. B., Cramer, L. D., Warren, J. L., et al. (1999) Racial differences in the treatment of early-stage lung cancer. N Engl J Med. 341: 11981205.
  • 29
    O'Malley, A. S., Kerner, J., Johnson, A. E., et al. (1999) Acculturation and breast cancer screening. Am J Public Health 89: 219227.
  • 30
    Consedine, N. S., Magai, C. (2002) The uncharted waters of emotion: ethnicity, trait emotion, and emotion expression in older adults. J Cross-Cultural Gerontol. 17: 71100.
  • 31
    Consedine, N. S., Magai, C., Cohen, C., et al. (2002) Ethnic variation in the impact of negative emotion and emotion inhibition in the health of older adults. J Gerontol Psych Sci. 57B: P1P13.
  • 32
    Gopaul-McNicol, S. (1999) Ethnocultural perspectives on childrearing practices in the Caribbean. Int Social Work 42: 7986.
  • 33
    Ramirez, A. G., Suarez, L., Laufman, L., et al. (2000) Hispanic women's breast and cervical knowledge, attitudes and screening behavior. Am J Public Health 14: 292300.
  • 34
    Suarez, L., Ramirez, A. G., Villarreal, R., et al. (2000) Social networks and cancer screening in four U.S. Hispanic groups. Am J Prevent Med. 19: 4752.
  • 35
    Cruickshank, J. K., Mbanya, J. C., Wilks, R., et al. (2001) Hypertension in 4 African-origin populations: Current “Rule of Halves,” quality of blood pressure control and attributable risk of cardiovascular disease. J Hypertens. 19: 4146.
  • 36
    Tull, E. S., Butler, C., Wickramasuriya, T., et al. (2001) Should body size preference be a target of health promotion efforts to address the epidemic of obesity in Afro-Caribbean women? Ethnicity Dis. 11: 652660.
  • 37
    Wright-Pascoe, R., Lindo, J. F. (1997) The age-prevalence profile of abdominal obesity among patients in a diabetes referral clinic in Jamaica. West Ind Med J. 46: 7275.
  • 38
    Becker, D. M., Yanek, L. R., Koffman, D. M., et al. (1999) Body image preferences among urban African Americans and Whites from low income communities. Ethnicity Dis. 9: 377386.
  • 39
    Simeon, D. T., Rattan, R. D., Panchoo, K. (2003) Body image of adolescents in a multi-ethnic Caribbean population. Eur J Clin Nutr 57: 157162.
  • 40
    Barnard, N. D., Nicholson, A. (1997) Beliefs about dietary factors in breast cancer prevention among American women, 1991 to 1995. Prev Med. 26: 109113.
  • 41
    Girois, S. B., Kumanyika, S. K., Morabia, A., et al. (2001) A comparison of knowledge and attitudes about diet and health among 35- to 75-year old adults in the United States and Geneva, Switzerland. Am J Public Health 91: 418424.
  • 42
    Althausen, L. (1996) Russian families. McGoldrick, M Giordano J Pearce, JK eds. Ethnicity and Family Therapy 2nd ed. Guilford New York, NY. 680687.
  • 43
    Margonoff, P. P., Folwarski, J. (1996) Russian/Ukrainian families: an overview. McGoldrick, M Giordano J Pearce, JK eds. Ethnicity and Family Therapy 2nd ed. Guilford New York, NY. 658672.
  • 44
    Stoll, B. A. (2000) Affluence, obesity and breast cancer. Breast J. 6: 146149.
  • 45
    Bermudez, O. I., Tucker, K. L. (2001) Total and central obesity among elderly Hispanics and the association with type 2 diabetes. Obes Res. 9: 443451.
  • 46
    Bianchini, F., Kaaks, R., Vainio, H. (2002) Overweight, obesity, and cancer risk. Lancet 3: 565574.
  • 47
    Truswell, A. S. (1998) Practical and realistic approaches to healthier diet modifications. Am J Clin Nutr. 67: 583S590S.
  • 48
    Breen, N., Kessler, L. (1994) Changes in the use of screening mammography: evidence from the 1987 and 1990 National Health Interview Surveys. Am J Public Health 84: 6267.
  • 49
    Burack, R. C., Liang, J. (1987) The early detection of cancer in the primary care setting: factors associated with the acceptance and completion of recommended procedures. Prev Med. 16: 739751.
  • 50
    Hayward, R. A., Shapiro, M. F., Freeman, H. E., et al. (1988) Who gets screened for cervical and breast cancer? Results from a new national survey. Arch Intern Med. 148: 11771181.
  • 51
    Lannin, D. R., Mathews, H. F., Mitchell, J., et al. (1998) Influence of socioeconomic and cultural factors on racial differences in late-stage presentation of breast cancer. J Am Med Assoc. 279: 18011807.
  • 52
    Pearlman, D. N., Ehrich, B., Rakowski, W., et al. (1996) Breast cancer screening practices among black, Hispanic, and white women: reassessing differences. Am J Prev Med. 12: 327337.
  • 53
    Bronner, Y. L. (1994) Cultural sensitivity and nutrition counseling. Top Clin Nutr. 9: 1319.
  • 54
    Bronner, Y. L., Harris, E., Ebede, T. L., et al. (2001) Historical assessment of nutrition studies using only African-American study subjects: gender, socioeconomic status, and geographic location. Ethnicity Dis. 11: 134143.
  • 55
    Kittler-Goyan, P. G., Sucher, K. P. (1989) Food and Culture Van Norstad Reinhold New York, NY.
  • 56
    Sharma, S., Cruikshank, J. K. (2001) Cultural differences in assessing dietary intake and providing relevant dietary information to British African-Caribbean populations. J Am Diet Assoc. 17: 449456.
  • 57
    Gregg, J., Curry, R. H. (1994) Explanatory models for cancer among African-American women at two Atlanta neighborhood health centers: the implications for a cancer screening program. Soc Sci Med. 39: 519526.
  • 58
    Powe, B. (1995) Fatalism among elderly African Americans. Cancer Nurs. 18: 385392.
  • 59
    Wellman, N. S., Friedberg, B. (2002) Causes and consequences of adult obesity: health, social and economic impacts in the United States. Asia Pacific J Clin Nutr. 11: S705S709.