Pathophysiology and Long-Term Management of the Metabolic Syndrome


Department of Medicine, St. Luke's/Roosevelt Hospital Center, 1111 Amsterdam Avenue, Room 1020, New York, NY 10025. E-mail:


The metabolic syndrome has been characterized by a cluster of abnormalities that include obesity, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Other conditions associated with this syndrome include microalbuminuria, inflammation, a prothrombotic state, and a fatty liver. Together, these abnormalities lead to an environment where the risk of developing both type 2 diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease are greatly enhanced. Recognition of this syndrome by practitioners, early treatment, and long-term management are crucial for disease prevention. Successful treatment requires the introduction of lifestyle changes initially and pharmacotherapy subsequently if lifestyle changes are not sufficient.