• 1
    Zhang, R., Reisin, E. (2000) Obesity-hypertension: the effects on cardiovascular and renal systems. Am J Hypertens. 13: 13081314.
  • 2
    Lyznicki, J. M., Young, D. C., Riggs, J. A., Davis, RM. (2001) Obesity: assessment and management in primary care. Am Fam Physician. 63: 21852196.
  • 3
    Melanson, K. J., McInnis, K. J., Rippe, J. M., Blackburn, G., Wilson, PF. (2001) Obesity and cardiovascular disease risk: research update. Cardiol Rev. 9: 208209.
  • 4
    Sturm, R., Wells, KB. (2001) Does obesity contribute as much to morbidity as poverty or smoking? Public Health. 115: 229235.
  • 5
    Calle, E. E., Rodriguez, C., Walker-Thurmond, K., Thun, MJ. (2003) Overweight, obesity, and mortality from cancer in a prospectively studied cohort of U.S. adults. N Engl J Med. 348: 16251638.
  • 6
    Flegal, K. M., Carroll, M. D., Kuczmarski, R. J., Johnson, CL. (1998) Overweight and obesity in the United States: prevalence and trends, 1960–1994. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 22: 3847.
  • 7
    Seidell, JC. (2000) Obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes—a worldwide epidemic. Br J Nutr. 83(Suppl 1): S5S8.
  • 8
    Brochu, M., Poehlman, E. T., Ades, PA. (2000) Obesity, body fat distribution, and coronary artery disease. J Cardiopulm Rehabil. 20: 96108.
  • 9
    Rossner, S., Sjöström, L., Noack, R., Meinders, A. E., Noseda, G. (2000) Weight loss, weight maintenance, and improved cardiovascular risk factors after 2 years treatment with orlistat for obesity. European Orlistat Obesity Study Group. Obes Res. 8: 4961.
  • 10
    Lissner, L. (1994) Causes, diagnosis and risks of obesity. Pharmacoeconomics. 5(Suppl 1): 817.
  • 11
    Mathias, S. D., Williamson, C. L., Colwell, H. H., et al (1997) Assessing health-related quality of life and health state preferences in persons with obesity: a validation study. Qual Life Res. 6: 311322.
  • 12
    Karlsson, J., Sjöström, L., Sullivan, M. (1998) Swedish obese subjects (SOS)—an intervention study of obesity: two-year follow-up of health-related quality of life (HRQL) and eating behavior after gastric surgery for severe obesity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 22: 113126.
  • 13
    Seidell, JC. (1998) Societal and personal costs of obesity. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 106(Suppl 2): 79.
  • 14
    Patrick, D. L., Chiang, YP. (2000) Measurement of health outcomes in treatment effectiveness evaluations: conceptual and methodological challenges. Med Care. 38(9 Suppl): II14II25.
  • 15
    Fontaine, K. R., Bartlett, S. J., Barofsky, I. (2000) Health-related quality of life among obese persons seeking and not currently seeking treatment. Int J Eat Disord. 27: 101105.
  • 16
    Kolotkin, R. L., Head, S., Hamilton, M., Tse, CK. (1995) Assessing impact of weight on quality of life. Obes Res. 3: 4956.
  • 17
    Sullivan, M., Karlsson, J., Sjöström, L., et al (1993) Swedish obese subjects (SOS)—an intervention study of obesity. Baseline evaluation of health and psychosocial functioning in the first 1743 subjects examined. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 17: 503512.
  • 18
    Kolotkin, R. L., Crosby, RD. (2002) Psychometric evaluation of the impact of weight on quality of life-lite questionnaire (IWQOL-lite) in a community sample. Qual Life Res. 11: 157171.
  • 19
    Hunt, S. M., McKenna, SP. (1992) The QLDS: a scale for the measurement of quality of life in depression. Health Policy. 22: 307319.
  • 20
    Karlsson, J., Sjöström, L., Sullivan, M. (1995) Swedish obese subjects (SOS)—an intervention study of obesity. Measuring psychosocial factors and health by means of short-form questionnaires. Results from a method study. J Clin Epidemiol. 48: 817823.
  • 21
    Hunt, SM. (1997) The problem of quality of life. Qual Life Res. 6: 205212.
  • 22
    Niero, M., Martin, M., Glauda, L., et al (1999) A newly designed cross-cultural questionnaire on QOL in obesity. Qual Life Res. 8: 585
  • 23
    Karlsson, J., Persson, L-O, Sjöström, L., Sullivan, M. (2000) Psychometric properties and factor structure of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEO) in obese men and women. Results from the Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 24: 17151725.
  • 24
    Niero, M., Martin, M., Finger, T., et al (2002) Multi-cultural development of two new obesity-specific health-related quality of life and symptom measures: the OWLQOL (Obesity and Weight Loss Quality of Life) instrument and the WRSM (Weight-Related Symptom Measure). Clin Ther. 24: 690700.
  • 25
    Patrick, D. L., Erickson, P. (1993) Health Status and Quality of Life in Health Care Evaluation and Resource Allocation. Oxford University Press: New York, NY.
  • 26
    The WHOQoL Group (1994) The development of the World Health Organization quality-of-life assessment (the WHOQoL). In Orley, J and Kuyken, W (eds). Quality-of-Life Assessment: International Perspectives. Springer Verlag: Berlin. 4157.
  • 27
    National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (1998) Clinical Guidelines on the Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults. National Institutes of Health: Washington, DC.
  • 28
    Leidy, N., Revicki, D., Geneste, B. (1999) Recommendations for evaluating the validity of quality of life claims for labeling and promotion. Value Health. 2: 113127.
  • 29
    Scientific Advisory Committee of the Medical Outcomes Trust (2002) Assessing health status and quality-of-life instruments: attributes and review criteria. Qual Life Res. 11: 193205.
  • 30
    Patrick, D. L., Danis, M. L., Southerland, L. I., Hong, G. (1988) Quality of life following intensive care. J Gen Intern Med. 3: 218233.
  • 31
    Patrick, D. L., Kinne, S., Engelberg, R. A., Pearlman, RA. (2000) Functional status and perceived quality of life in adults with and without chronic conditions. J Clin Epidemiol. 53: 779785.
  • 32
    Ware, J. E., Snow, K. K., Kosinski, M., Gandek, B. (1993) SF-36 Health Survey Manual and Interpretation Guide. New England Medical Center, The Health Institute: Boston, MA. 7:97:11.
  • 33
    Patrick, D. L., Ramsey, S. D., Spencer, A. C., Kinne, S., Belza, B., Topolski, TD. (2002) Economic evaluation of aquatic exercise for persons with osteoarthritis. Med Care. 39: 413424.
  • 34
    SPSS (1999) Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Base 10.0 User's Guide. SPSS, Inc.: Chicago, IL.
  • 35
    Guttman, L. (1945) A basis for analyzing test-retest reliability. Psychometrika. 10: 255282.
  • 36
    Cronbach, LF. (1951) Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika. 16: 297334.
  • 37
    Deyo, R. A., Diehr, P., Patrick, DL. (1991) Reproducibility and responsiveness of health status measures: statistics and strategies for evaluation. Control Clin Trials. 12(Suppl 4): 142S158S.
  • 38
    Nunnally, J. C., Bernstein, IH. (1994) Psychometric Theory. 3rd ed. McGraw-Hill: New York.
  • 39
    Cohen, J. (1997) Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. (revised edition). Academic Press: New York.
  • 40
    International Obesity Task Force (Accessed December 12, 2003) National Institutes of Health Clinical Guidelines on the Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults.
  • 41
    Guyatt, G. H., Feeny, D. H., Patrick, DL. (1993) Measuring health-related quality of life. Ann Intern Med. 118: 622629.
  • 42
    Kolotkin, R. L., Head, S., Brookhart, A. (1997) Construct validity of the Impact of Weight on Quality of Life questionnaire. Obes Res. 5: 434441.
  • 43
    Kolotkin, R. L., Crosby, R. D., Kosloski, K. D., Williams, GR. (2001) Development of a brief measure to assess quality of life in obesity. Obes Res. 9: 102111.
  • 44
    Patrick, D. L., Gagnon, D. D., Mabe, M. A., Zagari, M. (2003) Assessing the clinical significance of Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) improvement in anemic cancer patients receiving Epoetin Alfa. Eur J Cancer. 39: 335345.
  • 45
    Ware, J. E., Kosinski, M. (2002) The SF-36 Physical and Mental Health Summary Scales: A Manual for User's, Version 1. 2nd ed. QualityMetric: Lincoln, RI.