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Dietary Intake of Whole and Refined Grain Breakfast Cereals and Weight Gain in Men

Authors

  • Lydia A. Bazzano,

    1. Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts
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  • Yiqing Song,

    1. Division of Preventive Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
    2. Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts
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  • Vadim Bubes,

    1. Division of Preventive Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
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  • Carolyn K. Good,

    1. General Mills Bell Institute of Health and Nutrition, Minneapolis, Minnesota
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  • JoAnn E. Manson,

    1. Division of Preventive Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
    2. Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts
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  • Simin Liu

    Corresponding author
    1. Division of Preventive Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
    2. Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts
    • Division of Preventive Medicine, Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women's Hospital, 900 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215. E-mail: siminliu@hsph.harvard.edu

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  • The costs of publication of this article were defrayed, in part, by the payment of page charges. This article must, therefore, be hereby marked “advertisement” in accordance with 18 U.S.C. Section 1734 solely to indicate this fact.

Abstract

Objective: Prospective studies have suggested that substituting whole grain for refined grain products may lower the risk of overweight and obesity. Breakfast cereal intake is a major source of whole and refined grains and has also been associated with having a lower BMI. The aim of this study was to prospectively assess the association between whole and refined grain breakfast cereal intakes and risk of overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) and weight gain.

Research Methods and Procedures: We examined 17, 881 U.S. male physicians 40 to 84 years of age in 1982 who were free of cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and cancer at baseline and reported measures of breakfast cereal intake, weight, and height.

Results: Over 8 and 13 years of follow-up, respectively, men who consumed breakfast cereal, regardless of type, consistently weighed less than those who consumed breakfast cereals less often (p value for trend = 0.01). Whole and refined grain breakfast cereal intake was inversely associated with body weight gain over 8 years, after adjustment for age, smoking, baseline BMI, alcohol intake, physical activity, hypertension, high cholesterol, and use of multivitamins. Compared with men who rarely or never consumed breakfast cereals, those who consumed ≥1 serving/d of breakfast cereals were 22% and 12% less likely to become overweight during follow-up periods of 8 and 13 years (relative risk, 0.78 and 0.88; 95% confidence interval, 0.67 to 0.91 and 0.76 to 1.00, respectively).

Discussion: BMI and weight gain were inversely associated with intake of breakfast cereals, independently of other risk factors.

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